CBI - China: Day 128 of 154 of the Japanese Invasion of Manchuria.
1933 — , January 23
CBI - China: Day 23 of 142 of the 1st Battle of Hebei.
1937 — , January 23
Spain: Day 191 of 985 of the Spanish Civil War.
1938 — , January 23
Spain: Day 556 of 985 of the Spanish Civil War.
CBI - China: Day 201 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 46 of 54 of the Battle of Nanking.
Day 42 of 50 of the Rape of Nanking.
1939 — , January 23
USA: The Douglas A-20 Havoc light bomber and night fighter makes its first flight.
An A-20G of the USAAF
The Douglas A-20 Havoc (company designation DB-7) was an American attack, light bomber, intruder and night fighter aircraft of WWII. It served with several Allied air forces, principally the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF), the Soviet Air Forces (VVS), Soviet Naval Aviation (AVMF) and the Royal Air Force (RAF) of the United Kingdom. Over 20 variations of the A-20 were built.
Soviet units received more than one in three (2,908 aircraft) of the A-20 variants ultimately built. It was also used by the air forces of Australia, South Africa, France and the Netherlands during the war, and by Brazil afterward.
British air forces gave their A-20 variants the service name "Boston," while night fighter and intruder variants were usually known as Havoc. An exception to this was the Royal Australian Air Force, which referred to all variants by the name Boston. The USAAF referred to night fighter variants as the P-70.
Although not the fastest or longest-range aircraft in its class, the Douglas DB-7 series distinguished itself as a tough, dependable combat aircraft with an excellent reputation because of its speed and maneuverability.
Its true impact was that the Douglas bomber/night fighter was extremely adaptable and found a role in every combat theater of the war and excelled as a true "pilot's airplane."
US Bomber Production in WWII
*Part of 9,831 Douglas bombers of similar design built
CBI - China: Day 566 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
1940 — , January 23
Finland: Day 55 of 105 of the Russo-Finnish War.
CBI - China: Day 931 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 70 of 381 of the Battle of South Guangxi.
1941 — , January 23
ETO - UK: Day 140 of 258 of the Blitz.
MTO - North Africa: Day 46 of 63 of the UK's Operation COMPASS, their campaign in North Africa against the Italians in Egypt and Libya. The British 4th Armoured Brigade reaches Mechili, Libya, but cannot attack until the 7th Armoured Division is brought up.
East Africa: Day 228 of 537 of Italy's East African campaign in the lands south of Egypt.
CBI - China: Day 1,297 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
CBI - Thailand: Day 115 of 221 of the Franco-Thai War (Vichy France vs Thailand).
1942 — , January 23
Atlantic: Day 10 of 169 of Germany's Second "Happy Time," during which U-boats sink 609 Allied ships with little risk.
Russian Front - North: Day 138 of 872 of the Siege of Leningrad.
Russian Front - North: Day 15 of 29 of the Battle of Toropets, Russia. A failed attempt to break the siege at Leningrad.
Russian Front - North: Day 1 of 103 of the Battle of the Kholm Pocket, another attempt to break the siege at Leningrad.
Russian Front - Center: Day 16 of 103 of the Battle of Vyazma, Russia.
Russian Front - Center: Day 16 of 103 of the Battle of Sychevsk, Russia.
Russian Front - South: Day 86 of 248 of the Siege of Sevastopol, Crimean Peninsula. All German attacks against Sevastopol are stopped for the winter.
MTO - Libya: The Italian Army wants Rommel to halt his offensive, refusing to advance any further east. Undeterred, Rommel presses on with just his Afrika Korps.
CBI - Burma: Day 41 of 164 of Japan's Invasion of Burma.
CBI - China: Day 1,662 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 31 of 99 of the 3rd Battle of Changsha.
CBI - Malaya: Day 47 of 55 of the Battle of British Malaya.
PTO - Borneo: Day 39 of 107 of the Battle of Borneo.
PTO - Dutch East Indies: Day 1 of 2 of the 1st Battle of Balikpapan. Japanese will get the land victory but the Allies will get the naval victory.
PTO - New Guinea: Japanese take Rabaul on New Britain Island. They also invade Bougainville, the largest island in the Solomons.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 1 of 18 of the Battle of Rabaul, New Britain Island. Japanese drive out the few Australian defenders.
PTO - Philippines: Day 47 of 152 of the 1st Battle of the Philippines.
1943 — , January 23
MTO - Libya: The British 8th Army under General Montgomery triumphantly enters Tripoli, the capital of the Italian colony of Libya, while forces under German Field Marshal Rommel retreat to the Mareth Line in southern Tunisia.
Lieutenant General Bernard Montgomery, commanding the British Eighth Army in North Africa, in the turret of his Grant command tank at El Alamein, 05 Nov 42, and wearing his signature black beret.
The North African Campaign took place in North Africa from 10 June 40 to 13 May 43. It included campaigns fought in the Libyan and Egyptian deserts (Western Desert Campaign, also known as the Desert War) and in Morocco and Algeria (Operation TORCH) and Tunisia (Tunisia Campaign).
Fighting in North Africa started with the Italian declaration of war on 10 June 40. A see-saw series of battles for control of Libya and parts of Egypt followed, reaching a climax in the Second Battle of El Alamein when British Commonwealth forces under the command of Lieutenant-General Bernard Montgomery delivered a decisive defeat to the Axis forces and pushed them back to Tunisia.
To the men, Montgomery became the officer who defeated the dreaded Erwin Rommel. His popularity was gained not only through victories, but also his efforts to win the hearts of his men. He made sure that he was visible to the front line soldiers, speaking to them as much as possible. On one of the visits, he visited an armor unit, and spoke with the crew of a tank; one of the tankers gave him a black beret of the Royal Tank Regiment, which he wore for the remainder of the war, becoming part of his signature look.
Some of his methods for troop support were unorthodox, however, such as setting up a brothel in Tripoli, Libya, to satisfy the men's sexual needs. It received approval from the men who wanted this type of service, but it also added distance between Montgomery and the other officers who found brothels immoral and unacceptable.
ETO - France: US 8th Air Force B-17s bomb the port area of Lorient.
Russian Front - North: Day 503 of 872 of the Siege of Leningrad.
Russian Front - North: Day 12 of 19 of USSR's Operation ISKRA (Operation SPARK) on the southern shore of Lake Ladoga, north of Leningrad. This Soviet victory will help ease the siege at Leningrad a little bit more.
Russian Front - North: Day 264 of 658 of the Siege of the Kholm Pocket, USSR lays siege to the Kholm Pocket but the Germans hold out for a about a year and a half.
Russian Front - South: Day 155 of 165 of the Battle of Stalingrad, bloodiest battle in human history. The last German airfield in the Stalingrad pocket falls.
Russian Front - South: Day 43 of 69 of the USSR's Operation LITTLE SATURN. A successful drive into the Northern Caucasus and the Donets Basin pushing the Axis troops out.
MTO - Tunisia: Day 68 of 178 of the Battle of Tunisia. RAF and US Air Forces provide Allied air support.
CBI - Burma: Day 34 of 104 of the 1st Battle of Arakan. US 10th Air Force provides air support.
CBI - China: Day 2,027 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
PTO - Alaska: Day 231 of 435 of the Battle of Kiska, Aleutian Islands.
PTO - Malaya: Day 339 of 357 of the Battle of Timor Island, a long guerrilla war ending in Japanese victory.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 66 of 66 of the Battle of Buna-Gona. Results in an Allied victory.
PTO - Solomon Islands: Day 170 of 187 of the Battle of Guadalcanal. US troops take Kokumbona and the Poha River Valley. US 13th Air Force provides air support.
1944 — , January 23
ETO: US 9th Air Force: B-26s bomb various V-weapon sites in the French coastal area.
Russian Front - North: Day 868 of 872 of the Siege of Leningrad.
Russian Front - North: Day 629 of 658 of the Siege of the Kholm Pocket. USSR lays siege to the Kholm Pocket but the Germans hold out for a about a year and a half.
Russian Front - North: Day 10 of 48 of the Battle toward the Narva River, Estonia. This drive helps lift the Leningrad siege and liberate Narva.
Russian Front - North: Day 10 of 17 of the Battle of Krasnoye Selo-Ropsha, Russia (Operation JANUARY THUNDER). This victory will push the German line west of Leningrad back far enough so the Russians can reopen the Moscow-Leningrad railroad.
Russian Front - North: Day 10 of 33 of the Battle of Luga, Russia. Taking this town west of Leningrad will open the door toward Estonia.
Russian Front - South: Day 31 of 113 of the USSR's Dnieper-Carpathian Offensive in southwestern Ukraine.
MTO - Italy: Day 7 of 123 of the Battle of Monte Cassino. RAF and US Air Forces provides air support for the Allied ground troops.
MTO - Italy: Day 2 of 136 of the Battle of Anzio. RAF and US Air Forces provides air support for the Allied ground troops
MTO - Italy: The Royal Navy destroyer HMS JANUS is lost as the fighting rages around the Anzio beachhead.
CBI - Burma: Day 25 of 99 of the 2nd Battle of Arakan.
CBI - Burma: US 10th Air Force provides air support for the Allied ground troops.
CBI - China: Day 2,392 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
US 14th Air Force pounds the Kai Tek Airfield in the Hone Kong-Kowloon area.
PTO - Marshall Islands: US 7th Air Force bombs various islands in the Marshalls.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 127 of 219 of the Battle of Shaggy Ridge. The Australian 7th Division clears the Shaggy Ridge area. 5th Air Force provides air support.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 124 of 162 of the Battle of the Huon Peninsula. 5th Air Force provides air support.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 40 of 597 of the Battle of New Britain. US 13th Air Force provides air support.
PTO - Solomon Islands: Day 84 of 295 of the Battle of the Bougainville Islands. US 13th Air Force provides air support.
1945 — , January 23
ETO - France: Day 176 of 284 of the Battle of Brittany.
ETO - France: Day 131 of 236 of the Siege of Dunkirk.
ETO - Belgium: Day 39 of 41 of the Battle of the Bulge. US 9th Air Force provides air support.
ETO - Belgium: Day 24 of 26 of Operation NORDWIND, the last major German offensive of World War II on the Western Front.
ETO - Germany: Day 127 of 145 of the Battle of Hürtgen Forest.
ETO - Germany: US 8th Air Force B-17s hit targets at Neuss.
ETO: Day 4 of 66 of the Battle to the Rhine. US 9th Air Force provides air support.
Russian Front - Finland: Day 131 of 223 of the Lapland War. Finland and Russia have joined forces to kick the Germans out of Finland's most northern province.
Russian Front - Center: Day 101 of 206 of the Battle of the Courland Pocket in Latvia.
Russian Front - Center: Day 94 of 99 of the Siege of Memel, a border town of Lithuania and East Prussia. Soviet tanks enter Elbing on Baltic and reaches the river Oder in Silesia. Hundreds of thousands of refugees begin fleeing from East Prussia and Danzig.
Russian Front - Center: Day 12 of 23 of the Battle along the Vistula and Oder Rivers in central Poland and eastern Germany.
Russian Front - Center: Day 10 of 21 of the Battle of Warsaw, Poland.
Russian Front - South: Day 87 of 108 of the Battle of Budapest, Hungary.
MTO - Italy: US and Royal Air Forces provides air support for the Allied ground units.
CBI - Burma: Day 298 of 302 of the Chinese Salween Offensive. US 10th Air Force provides air support.
CBI - Burma: Day 5 of 61 of the Battles of Meiktila and Mandalay. The US 10th Air Force provides air support,
CBI - Burma: Day 3 of 39 of the Battle of Ramree Island. The US 10th Air Force provides air support
CBI - China: Day 2,758 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
US 14th Air Force attacks river, road and rail targets at several locations in both north and south China.
PTO - Alaska: US 11th Air Force B-24s strike the Kakumabetsu cannery and targets on Paramushiru Island.
PTO - Formosa: US 5th Air Force B-24s night bomb an aluminum factory at Takao.
PTO - Japan: US 7th Air Force B-24s bomb targets on Iwo Jima.
PTO - Japan: US 20th Air Force B-29s bomb the Mitsubishi engine plant at Nagoya.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 393 of 597 of the Battle of New Britain.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 277 of 481 of the Battle of Western New Guinea.
PTO - Philippines: Day 96 of 299 of the 2nd Battle of the Philippines, aka the Liberation of the Philippines or the Philippines Campaign.
PTO - Philippines: Day 40 of 244 of the Battle of Luzon. 5th Air Force provides air support.
1950 — , January 23
USA = North Carolina: After a 14-year hiatus, the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse is turned on once again to warn mariners of the dangers of Diamond Shoals (a series of three large sandbars broken up by channels). From 1941 to 1942 over 100 ships were sunk in the area by U-boats in what came to be known as the "Battle of Torpedo Junction."
Day-By-Day listings for January 23 were last modified on Tuesday, February 2, 2016