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Selected: March 28
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1929 — , March 28

  • China: Japan withdraws its troops from Shandong Province, moving them to the Japanese base in nearby Qingdao.

1933 — , March 28

  • CBI - China: Day 87 of 142 of the 1st Battle of Hebei.

1935 — , March 28

  • USA: Dr Robert H Goddard records the first successful launch of a gyroscopically stabilized rocket, attaining an altitude of 4,800 feet at a speed of 560 mph. It is similar to what will be incorporated into German V-2 rockets.
    Spotlight...

    Robert Hutchings Goddard

    Goddard is credited with these firsts...

    First explored mathematically the practicality of using rocket propulsion to reach high altitudes and even the moon (1912)
    First received US patent for idea of multi-stage rocket (1914)
    First proved, by actual static test, that a rocket will work in a vacuum, that it needs no air to push against
    First developed and shot a liquid fuel rocket (March 16, 1926)
    First shot a scientific payload (barometer and camera) in a rocket flight (1929)
    First used vanes in the rocket motor blast for guidance (1932)
    First developed gyro control apparatus for rocket flight (1932)
    First developed pumps suitable for rocket fuels
    First launched successfully a rocket with a motor pivoted on gimbals under the influence of a gyro mechanism (1937)

    Remarkable man.

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  • Germany: Triumph of the Will is released, a propaganda film made by Leni Riefenstahl. It chronicles the September 5-10, 1934 Nazi Party Congress in Nuremberg, which was attended by more than 700,000 Nazi supporters. It becomes both praised and criticized as a prominent example of propaganda in film history.
    Spotlight...

    Leni Riefenstahl during the 1934 filming

    Riefenstahl's techniques in Triumph of the Will - such as moving cameras, aerial photography, the use of long focus lenses to create a distorted perspective, and the revolutionary approach to the use of music and cinematography - have earned the film recognition as one of the greatest films in history.

    Riefenstahl won several awards, not only in Germany but also in the United States, France, Sweden, and other countries. The film was obviously popular in the Third Reich, and has continued to influence movies, documentaries, and commercials to this day. However, it is banned from showing in Germany, owing to its support for Nazism and its numerous portrayals of the swastika.

    Triumph of the Will gave Riefenstahl instant and lasting international fame, as well as infamy. After the war she said that her biggest regret was meeting Hitler: "It was the biggest catastrophe of my life. Until the day I die people will keep saying, 'Leni is a Nazi.'"

    Frank Capra's seven-film series Why We Fight is said to have been directly inspired by, and the United States' response to, Triumph of the Will.

    Like American filmmaker D. W. Griffith's Birth of a Nation, Triumph of the Will has been criticized as a use of spectacular filmmaking to promote a profoundly unethical system.

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1937 — , March 28

  • Spain: Day 255 of 985 of the Spanish Civil War.

1938 — , March 28

  • Germany: Incorporated Jewish congregations in Germany are legally deprived of their corporate status.
  • Germany: SS Obergruppenfuehrer Konrad Henlein, the most important ethnic German pro-Nazi politician in Czechoslovakia and leader of Sudeten German separatists, meets with Hitler and receives instructions to demand more than what the Czechoslovakian government is willing to provide.
  • Spain: Day 620 of 985 of the Spanish Civil War.
  • CBI - China: Day 265 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 50 of 124 of the Battle of Henan.
    • Day 5 of 15 of the Battle of Taierzhuang. The Chinese mount near-suicide charges on the Japanese, but are unsuccessful. Now anyone who can carry gun is compelled to fight.
    • Day 5 of 39 of the Battle of Xuzhou.

1939 — , March 28

  • Spain: Day 985 of 985 of the Spanish Civil War. The Spanish Civil war ends with Madrid falling to Franco's Nationalist troops, concluding one of the most brutal and bloody civil wars in history. For many, the suffering is far from over as the four-decade absolute rule of one of the twentieth century's most despicable despots begins.
    Spotlight...

    Hitler and Franco meet at Hendaye railway station,
    France, 23 Oct 40

    Franco could never have prevailed without the military support of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy (and the appeasement of Britain and France).

    For Hitler, the Spanish Civil War was an ideal testing ground for tanks and aircraft.

    For Mussolini, it was a chance to flex his ideological muscle.

    For Franco, his natural inclination to side with the fascist dictatorships, whose aid had been so important to his success, was tempered with a cautious sense of self-preservation. His concern was always to strengthen his own domestic position by tap-dancing his way around most Axis demands and not overtly upsetting the Allies, thus keeping Spain neutral throughout all of World War II.

    As odd as it may sound, Franco's actions (and lack of actions) actually helped the Allies to ultimate victory.

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  • Poland: Poland again rejects the German demands that Danzig be ceded to Germany. Furthermore, they say such might result in a war between the two.
  • Eastern Front: Day 6 of 13 of the Slovak-Hungarian War, aka the Little War.
  • CBI - China: Day 630 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 12 of 54 of the Battle of Nanchang.

1940 — , March 28

  • Atlantic: The Norwegian steamer SS BURGOS hits a German mine and sinks 30 miles west of Skegness, England. Survivors are rescued by British sloop HMS PELICAN.
  • ETO: The UK and France agree to lay naval mines in Norwegian waters and the Rhine River.
  • ETO - Netherlands: Dutch fighters shoot down a British bomber near Rotterdam by mistake, killing one flier.
  • CBI - China: Day 996 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 135 of 381 of the Battle of South Guangxi.
    • Day 61 of 67 of the Battle of Wuyuan. Chinese troops continue to evacuate Wuyuan.

1941 — , March 28

  • Atlantic: En route to Brest, France, German cruisers SCHARNHORST and GNEISENAU are spotted by a British Spitfire pilot.
  • ETO - UK: Day 204 of 258 of the Blitz.
  • MTO - Greece: In the Mediterranean, Day 1 of 2 of the sea Battle of Cape Matapan, during which the Italian and British navies clash at sea. Although ships are damaged on both sides and some are even put out of action, none of the British vessels are sunk.
  • MTO - Italy: Italian torpedo boat CHINOTTO hits a British mine and sinks off Palermo, Sicily.
  • MTO - Tunisia: British sub HMS UTMOST sinks the German ship HERAKLEA and damages the German ship RUHR off the coast of Tunisia.
  • East Africa: Day 292 of 537 of Italy's East African campaign in the lands south of Egypt.
  • East Africa - Eritrea: Day 52 of 56 of the Battle of Keren. The Indians chase the Italians troops retreating from Keren. The Italian rearguard was able to slow the Indians down.
  • CBI - China: Day 1,361 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 15 of 27 of the Battle of Shanggao.
  • CBI - Thailand: Day 179 of 221 of the Franco-Thai War (Vichy France vs Thailand).

1942 — , March 28

  • Atlantic: Day 74 of 169 of Germany's Second "Happy Time," during which U-boats sink 609 Allied ships with little risk.
  • ETO - France: Operation CHARIOT: British commandos raid St Nazaire, destroying the only drydock available in France.
  • ETO - Germany: Lübeck suffers the first area saturation bombing (aka carpet bombing) as RAF bombers drop incendiaries, destroying over 200 acres of the city.
  • Germany: German official Fritz Sauckel is named Chief of Manpower to expedite recruitment of slave labor.
  • Russian Front - North: Day 202 of 872 of the Siege of Leningrad.
  • Russian Front - North: Day 49 of 102 of the Battle of the Demyansk Pocket, another failed attempt to break the siege at Leningrad.
  • Russian Front - North: Day 65 of 103 of the Battle of the Kholm Pocket. Another attempt to break the siege at Leningrad.
  • Russian Front - Center: Day 80 of 103 of the Battle of Vyazma, Russia.
  • Russian Front - Center: Day 80 of 103 of the Battle of Sychevsk, Russia.
  • Russian Front - Center: Day 26 of 49 of the Battle of Rzhev, Russia, a diversion to pull more German troops away from Moscow.
  • Russian Front - South: Day 150 of 248 of the Siege of Sevastopol, Crimean Peninsula.
  • CBI - Burma: Day 105 of 164 of Japan's Invasion of Burma. A fresh regiment of the Japanese troops arrive to attack the Chinese defending the city of Toungoo.
  • CBI - China: Day 1,726 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 95 of 99 of the 3rd Battle of Changsha.
  • PTO - Borneo: Day 103 of 107 of the Battle of Borneo.
  • PTO - Malaya: Day 38 of 357 of the Battle of Timor Island.
  • PTO - Philippines: Day 111 of 152 of the 1st Battle of the Philippines. 5th Air Force provides air support. Japanese Navy planes continue bombing Corregidor.

1943 — , March 28

  • ETO - France: US 8th Air Force B-17s and B-24s bomb the Rouen-Sotteville marshalling yard.
  • Russian Front - North: Day 567 of 872 of the Siege of Leningrad.
  • Russian Front - North: Day 47 of 51 of the USSR's Operation POLAR STAR, a failed offensive north of Leningrad, hoping to take the southern shore of Lake Ladoga, Russia.
  • Russian Front - North: Day 328 of 658 of the Siege of the Kholm Pocket, USSR lays siege to the Kholm Pocket but the Germans hold out for a about a year and a half.
  • Russian Front - Center: Day 27 of 30 of the 3rd Battle of Rzhev-Sychevka, Russia.
  • MTO - Italy: US 15th Air Force bombs the oil refinery at Livorno.
  • MTO - Tunisia: Day 132 of 178 of the Battle of Tunisia. RAF and US Air Forces provide Allied air support. Day 6 of 16 of the Battle of El Guettar. The British 1st Army goes after retreating Axis troops into northern Tunisia.
  • CBI - Burma: Day 98 of 104 of the 1st Battle of Arakan. US 10th Air Force provides air support. The main body of UK Chindits reach Inywa.
  • CBI - Burma: Day 49 of 79 of the Allied Operation LONGCLOTH.
  • CBI - China: Day 2,091 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
  • PTO - Alaska: Day 295 of 435 of the Battle of Kiska, Aleutian Islands.
  • PTO: USS TUNNY attacks a Japanese cargo ship off Wake Island, blowing off the ship's stern.

1944 — , March 28

  • USA: US Congress approves $1,350,000,000 to fund the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Agency for assisting refugees in Europe.
  • ETO - France: US 8th Air Force B-17s bomb airfields.
  • ETO - Netherlands: US 8th Air Force B-24s attack E-boat pens.
  • Russian Front - North: Day 56 of 191 of the Battle of the Narva Isthmus, Estonia. Both German and Soviet troops in the Baltic region remain in a defensive position.
  • Russian Front - South: Day 96 of 113 of the USSR's Dnieper-Carpathian Offensive in southwestern Ukraine.
  • Russian Front - South: Day 25 of 45 of the Battle of Chernovtsy, Ukraine.
  • Russian Front - South: Day 4 of 15 of the Battle of Kamenets-Podolsky Pocket, Ukraine.
  • Russian Front - South: Day 23 of 44 of the Battle of Snigirevka, Ukraine.
  • Russian Front - South: Day 3 of 20 of the Battle of Odessa, Ukraine. German and Romanian troops begin evacuating from Odessa.
  • Russian Front - South: The Soviets recapture Nikolaev on the Black Sea and enter Romanian territory.
  • MTO - Italy: About 300 patients from two hospitals and one psychiatric institution in Trieste are deported to Auschwitz Concentration Camp.
  • MTO - Italy: Day 72 of 123 of the Battle of Monte Cassino. Bad weather keeps both sides fairly idle.
  • MTO - Italy: Day 67 of 136 of the Battle of Anzio. Bad weather keeps both sides fairly idle.
  • CBI: US 14th Air Force attacks targets in French Indochina and China.
  • CBI - Burma: Day 90 of 99 of the 2nd Battle of Arakan.
  • CBI - Burma: Day 24 of 166 of the UK's Operation THURSDAY. Japanese troops continue attacking the BROADWAY site.
  • CBI - Burma: Day 19 of 147 of the Battle of Myitkyina. US 10th Air Force provides air support. Chinese troops capture Shaduzup. Japanese troops counter-attack Chinese troops near Jambu Bum ridge. Day 1 of 10 of an action at Nhpum Ga Ridge by the infamous "Merrill's Marauders" against 1,300 Japanese.
  • CBI - China: Day 2,457 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
  • CBI - India: Day 21 of 118 of the Battle of Imphal-Kohima. Japanese troops cut the road between Imphal and Kohima.
  • PTO - Marshall Islands: US 7th Air Force attack targets in the Marshalls.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 29 of 80 of the Battle of the Admiralty Islands. 5th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 192 of 219 of the Battle of Shaggy Ridge. 5th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 105 of 597 of the Battle of New Britain. US 13th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO - Palau Islands: US Navy planes bomb Japanese ships in the Palau Islands.
  • PTO - Solomon Islands: Day 149 of 295 of the Battle of the Bougainville Islands. US 13th Air Force provides air support.

1945 — , March 28

  • ETO - France: Day 241 of 284 of the Battle of Brittany.
  • ETO - France: Day 195 of 236 of the Siege of Dunkirk.
  • ETO - Germany: Day 22 of 46 of the Battle of the Ruhr Pocket. The British 2nd Army begins its drive toward the Elbe as the US 1st Army captures Marburg. US 3rd Army captures Limburg am Lahn. US 9th Air Force provides air support.
  • ETO - Germany: US 8th Air Force B-17s bomb industrial targets in Berlin and Hannover.
  • Russian Front - Finland: Day 195 of 223 of the Lapland War. Finland and Russia have joined forces to kick the Germans out of Finland's most northern province.
  • Russian Front - Center: Day 165 of 206 of the Battle of the Courland Pocket in Latvia.
  • Russian Front - Center: Day 63 of 75 of the Battle of Königsberg, East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia).
  • Russian Front - Center: Day 62 of 63 of the Battle of the Heiligenbeil Pocket in East Prussia.
  • Russian Front - Center: Day 47 of 54 of the Battle of East Pomerania, Germany. The 1st Belorussian Front captures Gotenhafen (Gdynia) north of Danzig.
  • Russian Front - Center: Day 44 of 83 of the German Siege of Breslau (today Wroclaw, Poland).
  • Russian Front - Center: Day 14 of 17 of the USSR's Upper Silesian Offensive in Germany (today Poland).
  • Russian Front - South: Day 3 of 21 of the Battle of Nagykanizsa-Körmend, western Hungary.
  • Russian Front - South: Day 16 of 34 of the Battle of Vienna, Austria.
  • MTO - Italy: RAF and US Air Forces provide air support for the Allied ground units.
  • CBI: US 14th Air Force attacks targets throughout China, Burma, and French Indochina.
  • CBI: The submarine USS TRIGGER is depth charged and sunk by the Japanese in the East China Sea.
  • CBI - Burma: Day 53 of 99 of the Battle of Pakokku and Irrawaddy River operations in central Burma. The US 10th Air Force provides air support.
  • CBI - China: Day 2,822 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
  • PTO: USS TIRANTE sinks the Japanese freighter NASE MARU.
  • PTO: US 7th Air Force attacks targets in the Marshall and Caroline Islands.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 457 of 597 of the Battle of New Britain. US 10th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 341 of 481 of the Battle of Western New Guinea. US 10th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO - Philippines: Day 160 of 299 of the 2nd Battle of the Philippines, aka the Liberation of the Philippines or the Philippines Campaign.
  • PTO - Philippines: Day 104 of 244 of the Battle of Luzon. 5th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO - Philippines: Day 19 of 159 of the Battle of Mindanao Island. 5th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO - Philippines: Day 11 of 135 of the Battle of the Visayas region. 5th Air Force provides air support.

Day-By-Day listings for March 28 were last modified on Tuesday, February 2, 2016
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