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Selected: June 16
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1922 — , June 16

  • USA: Henry A Berliner demonstrates a helicopter of his own design before a US Navy delegation at College Park, Maryland.

1924 — , June 16

  • China: The Whampoa Military Academy is founded in China.

1936 — , June 16

  • Germany: Heinrich Himmler is named the head of the first German national police force. Prior to this, police forces had always been under the jurisdiction of local states and not the national government.

1937 — , June 16

  • Spain: Day 335 of 985 of the Spanish Civil War. The POUM (Parttido Obrero de Unification Marxistas) is outlawed and its leaders are arrested.

1938 — , June 16

  • Italy: The Anglo-Italian pact grants recognition of the Italian conquest of Ethiopia.
  • Spain: Day 700 of 985 of the Spanish Civil War.
  • CBI - China: Day 345 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 6 of 139 of the Battle of Wuhan.

1939 — , June 16

  • CBI - China: Day 710 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 3 of 68 of the Battle of Tianjin.
  • CBI - Mongolia: Day 37 of 129 of the Battle of Khalkhin Gol, a border dispute between the Soviet Union and Japan.

1940 — , June 16

  • Atlantic: The German sub U-101 sinks the British merchant ship WELLINGTON STAR in the Bay of Biscay.
  • ETO - France: Marshal Pétain becomes the new French Prime Minister as PM Reynaud resigns.
  • ETO - France: Day 38 of 44 of the Battle of France. German troops break through the Champagne region and on to Dijon and reach Besancon. Meanwhile, 57,000 more British troops withdraw from France via Nantes and St Nazaire.
  • ETO - France: The Curie Laboratory in France transfers 410 pounds of Norwegian heavy water to the British.
  • Eastern Front: The USSR invades Estonia and Latvia. Using the excuse that the Baltic states are conspiring against them, both nations are issued ultimatums to become puppet nations under the Soviets.
  • Eastern Front: In Latvia, tens of thousands of hostile natives and their families are rounded up and deported to NKVD prison camps in the Soviet Union.
  • MTO - Italy: The British sub GRAMPUS is sunk by four Italian torpedo boats off the coast of Syracuse, Sicily.
  • MTO - Libya: The first tank battle of the North African Campaign, between the Italians and the British, takes place in the Battle of Nezuet Ghirba.
  • East Africa: Day 7 of 537 of Italy's East African campaign in the lands south of Egypt.
  • CBI - China: Day 1,076 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 215 of 381 of the Battle of South Guangxi.
    • Day 47 of 49 of the Battle of Yichang.

1941 — , June 16

  • USA: The US State Department orders that by July 10th all German consular offices and tourist agencies in the US are to be closed down. The Italians will close theirs on June 19th.
  • UK: British unemployment figures for May are the lowest yet at 243,656 out of work, which is 400,000 less than a year ago.
  • MTO - Libya: Day 68 of 256 of the Siege of Tobruk. The British fight off an attack at Fort Capuzzo, but lose many of their tanks at Hafid Ridge.
  • Middle East: Day 9 of 37 of the Battle for Syria and Lebanon. Vichy French troops capture Quneitra. Meanwhile, Indian and Free French troops advance toward Damascus. Out at sea, British bombers sink the Vichy French destroyer CHECALIER PAUL.
  • East Africa: Day 372 of 537 of Italy's East African campaign in the lands south of Egypt.
  • CBI - China: Day 1,441 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.

1942 — , June 16

  • USA: The US Congress authorizes funding to increase the US Navy blimp fleet to 200 blimps.
  • Canada: The Royal Canadian Air Force begins flying Ventura aircraft.
  • Atlantic: Day 154 of 169 of Germany's Second "Happy Time," during which U-boats sink 609 Allied ships with little risk.
    • U-202 delivers four German agents near Jacksonville, Florida. Another team of saboteurs had been landed on Long Island, New York, on 12 Jun 42. All eight will be captured within a few weeks and six of them will be executed on 08 Aug 42.
  • Russian Front - North: Day 282 of 872 of the Siege of Leningrad.
  • Russian Front - North: Day 43 of 658 of the Siege of the Kholm Pocket.
  • Russian Front - Center: Day 19 of 31 of Operation KREMLIN, a German diversion to trick the Soviets into thinking Moscow is their main objective instead of Stalingrad and the Caucasus.
  • Russian Front - South: Day 230 of 248 of the Siege of Sevastopol, Crimean Peninsula.
  • MTO - Libya: Day 22 of 27 of the Battle of Gazala.
  • East Africa: Day 43 of 186 of the Battle of Madagascar.
  • CBI - China: Day 1,806 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 33 of 124 of Japan's Zhejiang-Jiangxi Campaign, launched to punish anyone suspected of aiding the Doolittle raiders in China. Roughly 250,000 Chinese will be killed.
  • PTO - Alaska: Day 10 of 435 of the Battle of Kiska, Aleutian Islands.
  • PTO - Malaya: Day 118 of 357 of the Battle of Timor Island.
  • PTO - New Guinea: US 5th Air Force pounds targets at Lae and Salamaua.

1943 — , June 16

  • USA: First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt comments in her newspaper column on the Zoot Suit Riots in Los Angeles, which the local press has largely attributed to criminal actions by Mexican Americans. She brands it a racial situation with roots going a long way back.
    Spotlight...

    Eleanor Roosevelt, First Lady, Columnist, Ambassador

    In her "My Day" column for 16 June 43, Eleanor Roosevelt wrote...

    "The question goes deeper than just suits. It is a racial protest. I have been worried for a long time about the Mexican racial situation. It is a problem with roots going a long way back, and we do not always face these problems as we should."

    This led to an outraged response from the Los Angeles Times which printed an editorial the following day, in which it accused Mrs Roosevelt of having communist leanings and stirring "race discord."

    "My Day" was the six-day-a-week newspaper column Eleanor Roosevelt wrote from December 30, 1935, until September 26, 1962. In 1961, at her request when she grew too ill to work, the column appeared every other day until September 26, 1962. Nationally syndicated, at its height the column appeared in 90 papers in all parts of the nation, providing ER with a reading audience of 4,034,552, ranking her immediately below Dorothy Thompson, the leading female columnist of the era

    In her column, she discussed issues such as race, women, and key events, giving them a new view on the issues they faced every day.

    By 1940, interest in "My Day" was so strong that United Features Syndicate offered her a five-year contract even though it had no expectation that the Roosevelts would remain in Washington for another term.

    "My Day" influenced many Americans. Women felt empowered by learning Eleanor Roosevelt's opinion and she gave African-Americans a sense of hope for the future.

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  • Russian Front - North: Day 647 of 872 of the Siege of Leningrad.
  • Russian Front - North: Day 408 of 658 of the Siege of the Kholm Pocket.
  • CBI - China: Day 2,171 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
  • PTO: Day 21 of 47 adrift in a raft for the survivors of B-24 GREEN HORNET that crashed 850 miles from Hawaii.
  • PTO - Alaska: Day 375 of 435 of the Battle of Kiska, Aleutian Islands.
  • PTO - Dutch East Indies: US 5th Air Force bombs at Koepang and Oeikoesi on Timor Island.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 56 of 148 of the 2nd Battle of Lae-Salamaua. US 5th and 13th Air Forces provide air support.
  • PTO - Solomon Islands: Allied fighters engage a few hundred Japanese fighters near the Russell Islands and Guadalcanal. The Japanese lose 96 planes while the Allies lose 6.

1944 — , June 16

  • ETO - UK: Day 4 of 86 of the V-1 "Buzz Bomb" offensive on Britain. The offensive intensifies as 244 flying bombs land on England. The German press calls this the "Day of Vengeance." In total, the V-1 attacks will cause 22,892 casualties, almost entirely civilians.
    Spotlight...

    German soldiers moving a V-1 to the launch ramp

    The V-1 Flying Bomb, also known as the Buzz Bomb or Doodlebug, was an early pulse-jet powered predecessor of the cruise missile. The first of the so-called Vengeance Weapons designed for terror bombing of London, the V-1 was fired from "ski" launch sites along the French (Pas-de-Calais) and Dutch coasts.

    The first V-1 was launched at London on 13 June 1944, one week after (and prompted by) the successful Allied landing in Europe. At its peak, more than one hundred V-1s a day were fired at southeast England, 9,521 in total, decreasing in number as sites were overrun until October 1944, when the last V-1 site in range of Britain was overrun by Allied forces. This caused the remaining V-1s to be directed at the port of Antwerp and other targets in Belgium, with 2,448 V-1s being launched.

    The attacks stopped when the last site was overrun on 29 March 1945. In total, the V-1 attacks caused 22,892 casualties, almost entirely civilians.

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  • ETO - France: Day 11 of 49 of Operation OVERLORD, the Allied invasion of Normandy, France, known forever simply as D-Day.
  • ETO - France: Day 11 of 62 of the Battle of Caen.
  • ETO - France: Day 11 of 25 of the Battle of Cherbourg.
  • ETO - France: US 8th Air Force B-17s and B-24s bomb V-1 rocket sites and airfields.
  • Russian Front - Finland: Day 7 of 11 of the Battle of Vyborg. Soviet troops keep pushing the Finnish troops backwards on the Karelian Isthmus.
  • Russian Front - North: Day 136 of 191 of the Battle of the Narva Isthmus, Estonia. Both German and Soviet troops remain locked in their defensive positions.
  • MTO: US 15th Air Force B-17s and B-24s bomb targets in Austria and Czechoslovakia.
  • MTO - Italy: Day 12 of 16 of the Battle of the Trasimene Line (north of Rome). Allied Air Forces provide air support. The British 8th Army captures Foligno and Spoleto.
  • MTO - Italy: Day 1 of 34 of the Battle of Ancona. Polish troops will take this town.
  • CBI - Burma: Day 104 of 166 of the UK's Operation THURSDAY. Monsoon season bogs down all operations.
  • CBI - Burma: Day 99 of 147 of the Battle of Myitkyina. US 10th Air Force provides air support. Monsoon season bogs down all operations.
  • CBI - Burma: Day 77 of 302 of the Chinese Salween Offensive. US 14th Air Force provides air support. Monsoon season bogs down all operations.
  • CBI - China: Day 2,537 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 61 of 259 of Japan's Operation ICHI-GO.
  • CBI - India: Day 101 of 118 of the Battle of Imphal-Kohima.
  • PTO - Caroline Islands: US 7th Air Force bombs targets on Ponape Island.
  • PTO - Mariana Islands: Day 2 of 25 of the Battle of Saipan. The US Marines repel the Japanese counter-attacks.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 21 of 83 of the Battle of Biak. 5th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 185 of 597 of the Battle of New Britain. US 13th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 56 of 481 of the Battle of Western New Guinea. 5th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 3 of 80 of the Battle of Lone Tree Hill.
  • PTO - Philippines: The USS TUNNY sinks a small sampan.
  • PTO - Solomon Islands: Day 229 of 295 of the Battle of the Bougainville Islands. US 13th Air Force provides air support.

1945 — , June 16

  • Holland: 228 Georgians of the Texel Uprising are taken to Wilhelmshaven to be sent back to the USSR to face Stalin's wrath for having joined the Wehrmacht.
    Spotlight...

    Georgian soldiers in the Wehrmacht

    These soldiers of the Soviet Army had been captured by the Germans and given the choice of either fighting with them or facing certain death in German POW camps. Many Georgian soldiers chose to work for the Germans, having no love for the brutality of Stalin, and joined the German garrison on the Dutch island of Texel (pronounced Tessel).

    As the war was ending, it was obvious that the Allies would win and that Stalin's wrath would soon await them. On 04 Apr 45, they staged an uprising, killing 246 of their "fellow" German soldiers in their sleep. The mutiny turned into a lengthy battle which eventually killed 800 Germans, 500 Georgians and 117 Texel civilians. The fighting ended only when Canadian troops arrived on 20 May 1945, two weeks after Germany's surrender, making the Texel Uprising Europe's last battlefield of WWII.

    The Georgians refused to voluntarily disarm and leave Texel until the Canadians spoke on their behalf to Soviet authorities. The local Canadian commander was so impressed by their resistance efforts that he refused to class them as enemy personnel and treated them at all times as Displaced Persons. They did not have to disarm until their evacuation to Wilhelmshaven on 16 June 1945. Even then, officers were permitted to retain side arms.

    After arrival at a collection camp in the Soviet Union, 26 of the Georgians were singled out and banished together with their families. Nearly all others disappeared into Stalin's Gulags. In the mid-1950s, those still alive and properly "rehabilitated" were allowed to return home.

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  • CBI - China: Day 2,902 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 77 of 91 of the Battle of Zhijiang. US 14th Air Force provides air support. Japanese troops continue pulling out of China.
  • PTO - Alaska: US 11th Air Force: In the Kurile Islands, B-24s bomb shipping off Suribachi Bay on Paramushiru Island and a radar site on Minami Cape on Shimushu Island. B-25s bomb targets along the Torishima Chain.
  • PTO - Borneo: Day 7 of 67 of the Battle of North Borneo.
  • PTO - Dutch East Indies: Day 47 of 52 of the Battle of Tarakan Island.
  • PTO - Japan: US 20th Air Force P-47s dive-bomb on boats, AA positions, runways and buildings on Kikai Island.
  • PTO - Japan: Day 77 of 83 of the Battle of Okinawa. The destroyer USS TWIGGS is sunk by Japanese kamikazes.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 537 of 597 of the Battle of New Britain. US 10th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 421 of 481 of the Battle of Western New Guinea. US 10th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO - Philippines: Day 239 of 299 of the 2nd Battle of the Philippines, aka the Liberation of the Philippines or the Philippines Campaign.
  • PTO - Philippines: Day 184 of 244 of the Battle of Luzon. 5th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO - Philippines: Day 99 of 159 of the Battle of Mindanao Island. 5th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO - Philippines: Day 91 of 135 of the Battle of the Visayas region. US 5th and 7th Air Forces provide air support.

Day-By-Day listings for June 16 were last modified on Thursday, February 18, 2016
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