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Selected: June 23
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1937 — , June 23

  • Spain: Day 342 of 985 of the Spanish Civil War.

1938 — , June 23

  • Spain: Day 707 of 985 of the Spanish Civil War.
  • CBI - China: Day 352 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 13 of 139 of the Battle of Wuhan.

1939 — , June 23

  • Vatican: Pope Pius XII reaches an agreement with Brazil to issue 3,000 visas to non-Aryan Catholics to escape persecution. Ultimately, however, a little under 1,000 visas will be issued.
  • CBI - China: Day 717 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 10 of 68 of the Battle of Tianjin.
    • Day 3 of 7 of Operation SWATOW, the Japanese offensive to take Shantou in southern China.
  • CBI - Mongolia: Day 44 of 129 of the Battle of Khalkhin Gol, a border dispute between the Soviet Union and Japan.

1940 — , June 23

  • ETO - France: One day after the formal capitulation of France, Adolf Hitler arrives in Paris for some sightseeing at the Eiffel Tower. This will be his only visit to Paris.
    Spotlight...

    Hitler in Paris

    Adolf Hitler poses with the Eiffel Tower in the background one day after the formal capitulation of France. He is accompanied by Albert Speer, German Reichsminister of armaments and Hitler's chief architect, left, and Arno Breker, professor of visual arts in Berlin and Hitler's favorite sculptor, right.

    In the course of his tour of Paris, Hitler raised the question of a victory parade in Paris. But after discussing the matter with his adjutants, he decided against it. His official reason for calling off a parade was the danger of its being harassed by English air raids. But later he said, "I am not in the mood for a victory parade. We aren't at the end yet."

    But Hitler did make Napoleon's tomb among the sites to see. "That was the greatest and finest moment of my life," he said upon leaving.

    Comparisons between Hitler and Napoleon have been made many times: They were both foreigners to the countries they ruled (Napoleon was Italian, Hitler was Austrian); both planned invasions of Russia while preparing invasions of England; both captured the Russian city of Vilna on June 24; and both had photographs taken to preserve their memories.

    As a tribute to the French emperor, Hitler ordered that the remains of Napoleon's son be moved from Vienna to lie beside his father.

    But Hitler being Hitler, he came to do more than gawk at the tourist attractions. He ordered the destruction of any visible reminders of the past German defeat of World War One: a monument to General Charles Mangin, a French war hero, and another to Edith Cavell, a British nurse who was executed by a German firing squad for helping Allied soldiers escape German-occupied Brussels.

    Hitler would gush about Paris for months afterward. He was so impressed, he ordered architect and friend Albert Speer to revive plans for a massive construction program of new public buildings in Berlin, an attempt to destroy Paris, not with bombs, but with superior architecture. "Wasn't Paris beautiful?" Hitler asked Speer. "But Berlin must be far more beautiful," adding that once they finished building Berlin to supreme glory, Paris would be a mere shadow.

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  • ETO - Portugal: Portuguese police arrest 30 US sailors from the light cruiser USS TRENTON in a street brawl in Santo Amaro Oerias outside of Lisbon. Three of these Americans are injured during the arrest.
  • Eastern Front: The Soviet Foreign Minister sends the German Ambassador a message noting that the USSR would like to gain Bessarabia and Bukovina from Romania. This becomes a great concern for the German military, as they are highly dependent on Romania's oil.
  • East Africa: Day 14 of 537 of Italy's East African campaign in the lands south of Egypt. Rather than surrendering, the Italian sub EVANGELISTA TORRICELLI battles three British destroyers using just her gun deck. The EVANGELISTA TORRICELLI is sunk near Perim Island at the mouth of the Red Sea.
  • CBI - China: Day 1,083 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 222 of 381 of the Battle of South Guangxi.

1941 — , June 23

  • USA: US Under-Secretary of State backs Churchill's aid-for-Russia policy.
  • Russian Front - Finland: Day 2 of 164 of the Battle of Hanko.
  • Russian Front: Day 2 of 167 of Germany's Operation BARBAROSSA, the invasion of the USSR.
  • Russian Front - Estonia: Soviet destroyer GNEVNIY hits a mine and sinks off the island of Hiiumaa.
  • Russian Front - Latvia: German sub U-144 sinks the Soviet sub M-78 nine miles west of Vindava. Meanwhile, Soviet subs RONIS, SPIDOLA and S-1 are scuttled by their own crews at Libau to prevent German capture.
  • Russian Front - Lithuania: Day 1 of 5 of the Battle of Raseiniai. The Soviet counter-attack near Tilsit in East Prussia is repelled. Soviet authorities massacre political prisoners in Rainiai.
  • Russian Front - Center: Day 2 of 12 of the Battle of Minsk. German troops cross the River Bug, bypassing Brest-Litovsk from the north and south and penetrating 50 miles into Russian-occupied Poland.
  • Russian Front - Center: Day 2 of 8 of the Battle of Brest, Russia.
  • Russian Front - Center: Slovakia declares war on the Soviet Union.
  • Russian Front - South: Day 1 of 8 of the Battle of Brody, Poland.
  • Eastern Front - South: The Soviet destroyer BYSTRYB hits a mine and sinks off Sevastopol, Ukraine.
  • MTO - Libya: Day 75 of 256 of the Siege of Tobruk.
  • Middle East: Day 16 of 37 of the Battle for Syria and Lebanon.
  • East Africa: Day 379 of 537 of Italy's East African campaign in the lands south of Egypt.
  • CBI - China: Day 1,448 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.

1942 — , June 23

  • Atlantic: Day 161 of 169 of Germany's Second "Happy Time," during which U-boats sink 609 Allied ships with little risk.
    • U-158 sinks US Army transport USS MAJOR GENERAL HENRY GIBBINS 400 miles west of Key West, Florida.
  • ETO - UK: A disorientated Luftwaffe pilot mistakenly lands his new Focke-Wulf 190 fighter at RAF Pembrey in Wales, thinking he is in France. This gives the Allies what they need to know in order to out fight it.
  • Russian Front - North: Day 289 of 872 of the Siege of Leningrad.
  • Russian Front - North: Day 50 of 658 of the Siege of the Kholm Pocket.
  • Russian Front - Center: Day 26 of 31 of Operation KREMLIN, a German diversion to trick the Soviets into thinking Moscow is their main objective instead of Stalingrad and the Caucasus.
  • Russian Front - South: Day 237 of 248 of the Siege of Sevastopol, Crimean Peninsula. The Germans keep pushing on the Soviet's east line, forcing the Soviets to withdraw to the south side.
  • MTO - Egypt: Axis forces cross the Libyan-Egyptian border and head toward the Allied defensive positions at Mersa Matruh, 100 miles to the east.
  • MTO - Libya: US HALPRO B-24s bomb targets at Benghazi.
  • East Africa: Day 50 of 186 of the Battle of Madagascar.
  • CBI - China: Day 1,813 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 40 of 124 of Japan's Zhejiang-Jiangxi Campaign, launched to punish anyone suspected of aiding the Doolittle raiders in China. Roughly 250,000 Chinese will be killed.
  • PTO - Alaska: Day 17 of 435 of the Battle of Kiska, Aleutian Islands.
  • PTO - Malaya: Day 125 of 357 of the Battle of Timor Island.

1943 — , June 23

  • USA: In Detroit, Michigan, the Battle of Belle Isle riot fueled by racial tension is finally under control after three days of violence committed by both whites and blacks. During this period, 34 were killed (9 whites, 25 blacks) and about 500 were wounded.
  • Germany: All Jewish ghettos in the Galicia region of Poland and Ukraine are liquidated. A total of 430,329 Jews were deported from this region.
  • Russian Front - North: Day 654 of 872 of the Siege of Leningrad.
  • Russian Front - North: Day 415 of 658 of the Siege of the Kholm Pocket.
  • MTO - Italy: US 9th Air Force RAF Liberators bomb the airfield at Comiso, Sicily.
  • MTO - Italy: US 12th Air Force RAF Wellingtons night bomb the town of Olbia, Sardinia.
  • CBI - China: Day 2,178 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
  • PTO: Day 28 of 47 adrift in a raft for the survivors of B-24 GREEN HORNET that crashed 850 miles from Hawaii.
  • PTO - Alaska: Day 382 of 435 of the Battle of Kiska, Aleutian Islands.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 63 of 148 of the 2nd Battle of Lae-Salamaua. US 5th and 13th Air Forces provide air support.
  • PTO - Solomon Islands: Day 4 of 67 of the Battle of New Georgia. US 13th Air Force provides air support.

1944 — , June 23

  • ETO - UK: Day 11 of 86 of the V-1 "Buzz Bomb" offensive on Britain.
  • ETO - France: Day 18 of 49 of Operation OVERLORD, the Allied invasion of Normandy, France, known forever simply as D-Day. D-Day+17: Allied Air Forces provide air support.
  • ETO - France: Day 18 of 62 of the Battle of Caen.
  • ETO - France: Day 18 of 25 of the Battle of Cherbourg. The US continues their all-out ground attack.
  • Germany: International Red Cross representatives visit the prisoners at Theresienstadt Concentration Camp and are given positive reports about their living conditions as instructed by the camp administration.
  • Russian Front - Finland: Day 3 of 50 of the Battle of Karelia. Soviet troops continue their offensive against the Finns in eastern Karelia between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega in northern Russia.
  • Russian Front - Finland: Day 1 of 5 of the Battle of Lake Ladoga. The Soviets launch an offensive to take all sides of Lake Ladoga.
  • Russian Front - North: Day 143 of 191 of the Battle of the Narva Isthmus, Estonia. Both German and Soviet troops remain locked in their defensive positions.
  • Russian Front - Center: Day 1 of 6 of the Battle of Orsha, Belarus. The Soviets begin an offense against the German center.
  • Russian Front - Center: Day 1 of 6 of the Battle of Mogilev, Belarus. A Soviet diversion to pull enemy troops from defending other areas.
  • MTO - Romania: US 15th Air Force bomb oil targets in Romania.
  • MTO - Italy: Day 8 of 34 of the Battle of Ancona (north of Rome). Allied Air Forces provide air support.
  • CBI - Burma: Day 111 of 166 of the UK's Operation THURSDAY. UK Chindits engage Japanese troops in a fierce fight at Mogaung.
  • CBI - Burma: Day 106 of 147 of the Battle of Myitkyina. US 10th Air Force provides air support.
  • CBI - Burma: Day 84 of 302 of the Chinese Salween Offensive. US 14th Air Force provides air support.
  • CBI - China: Day 2,544 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 68 of 259 of Japan's Operation ICHI-GO.
    • Day 2 of 48 of the Battle of Hengyang.
  • CBI - India: Day 108 of 118 of the Battle of Imphal-Kohima. The Japanese continue retreating back to Burma.
  • PTO - Caroline Islands: US 7th Air Force bombs targets in the Truk Atoll and on Ponape Island.
  • PTO - Mariana Islands: Day 9 of 25 of the Battle of Saipan.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 28 of 83 of the Battle of Biak. 5th Air Force provides air support. US troops capture Sorido. Although the battle is over, there are still 3,000 Japanese soldiers on the island and fighting will continue until 17 August.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 192 of 597 of the Battle of New Britain. US 13th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 63 of 481 of the Battle of Western New Guinea. 5th Air Force provides air support, with the new A-26 Invader light bomber seeing its first action.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 10 of 80 of the Battle of Lone Tree Hill.
  • PTO - Solomon Islands: Day 236 of 295 of the Battle of the Bougainville Islands. US 13th Air Force provides air support.

1945 — , June 23

  • CBI - China: Day 2,909 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 84 of 91 of the Battle of Zhijiang. US 14th Air Force provides air support. Japanese troops continue pulling out of China.
  • PTO - Alaska: US 11th Air Force: In the Kurile Islands, B-24s sink a freighter between Matsuwa and Paramushiru Islands and damage 2 more plus hit a whale boat. Other B-24s bomb Kataoka on Shimushu Island.
  • PTO - Borneo: Day 14 of 67 of the Battle of North Borneo. US 5th and 13th Air Forces provide air support.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 544 of 597 of the Battle of New Britain. US 10th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 428 of 481 of the Battle of Western New Guinea. US 10th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO - Philippines: Day 246 of 299 of the 2nd Battle of the Philippines, aka the Liberation of the Philippines or the Philippines Campaign.
  • PTO - Philippines: Day 191 of 244 of the Battle of Luzon. 5th Air Force provides air support. US troops capture Aparri.
  • PTO - Philippines: Day 106 of 159 of the Battle of Mindanao Island. 5th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO - Philippines: Day 98 of 135 of the Battle of the Visayas region. US 5th and 7th Air Forces provide air support.

1958 — , June 23

  • UK: After 17 years, Britain finally ends the rationing of coal.

Day-By-Day listings for June 23 were last modified on Sunday, January 31, 2016
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