Austria: Archduke Ferdinand, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, is gunned down in Sarajevo by a group of six assassins, the event that sparks World War One.
The Archduke and his wife, minutes before assassination
The assassination of the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand came as tensions between European powers were reaching boiling point over their empires, military superiority and the struggle for home rule by smaller nations in the Balkans.
In Bosnia, 19-year-old Gavrilo Princip was one of many angry young men wanting to free his country from the control of Austria-Hungary. Bosnia had been annexed from Serbia six years before.
Archduke Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, was visiting Sarajevo to inspect imperial forces with his wife Sophie.
His parade through the town coincided with the anniversary of the 1389 Battle of Kosovo, which had come to be a symbol of Serbian patriotism, and the timing was seen as a direct insult to Serbians.
A group of six assassins, including Princip, had planned the assassination as a symbol of resistance to Austro-Hungarian role and gathered along the parade route.
Several members of the group failed to take their chances to kill the Archduke as he traveled through crowds with little security in an open car and a bomb thrown by Nedeljko Cabrinovie bounced off the vehicle.
The Archduke carried on to a scheduled reception at the Town Hall, where he spoke of the failed assassination, before leaving again in a motorcade (as seen in the photo above).
When the driver of Archduke Ferdinand's car took a fateful wrong turn, he was ordered to reverse and stopped directly in front of Princip who fired two shots, hitting the Archduke in the jugular and his wife Sophie in the abdomen, killing them both.
The double murder shocked Europe and led to anti-Serbian riots in Sarajevo. Days later, Austria-Hungary issued Serbia with an ultimatum, blaming the Government for the assassination and demanding it stopped all anti-Austro-Hungarian propaganda, accept its involvement suppressing rebels and allow it to take over trials of everyone involved in the assassination.
When the Serbian Government refused two of the demands, Vienna considered the ultimatum rejected.
Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28 and the tangle of national alliances pulled the rest of Europe into the conflict within days and the First World War began.
CBI - China: Day 357 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 18 of 139 of the Battle of Wuhan.
1939 — , June 28
UK: The British Women's Auxiliary Air Force (WAAF), the female auxiliary of the Royal Air Force, is formed. At its peak strength in 1943, WAAF numbers will exceed 180,000, with over 2,000 women enlisting per week.
Women of the Women's Auxiliary Air Force
WAAFs did not serve on aircrews, nor did they participate in active combat, though they were exposed to the same dangers as any on the "home front" working at military installations.
They were active in parachute packing and the manning of barrage balloons, in addition to performing meteorology, radar, transport and communications duties, including wireless telephonic and telegraphic operation.
They worked with codes and ciphers, analyzed reconnaissance photographs and performed intelligence operations.
WAAFs were a vital presence in the control of aircraft, both the radar stations and iconically as plotters in the operation rooms, most notably during the Battle of Britain.
Dates related to Women pilots in WWII...
28 Jun 39: Britain's Women's Auxiliary Air Force formed
11 Jan 40: Britain's Women's Section of ATA first delivery
CBI - China: Day 722 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 15 of 68 of the Battle of Tianjin.
CBI - Mongolia: Day 49 of 129 of the Battle of Khalkhin Gol, a border dispute between the Soviet Union and Japan.
1940 — , June 28
USA: The Alien Registration Act (the Smith Act) is passed by the US Congress, requiring aliens to register and be fingerprinted. The act also makes it illegal to advocate the overthrow of the US government.
Atlantic: German sub U-30 sinks the British ship LLANARTH 250 miles west of Brest, France.
Atlantic: British trawler CASTLETON becomes missing in the Orkney Islands in northern Scotland, which many believe was sunk by U-102 which also did not return from their patrol.
ETO - UK: General Charles de Gaulle is officially recognized by Britain as the "Leader of all Free Frenchmen, wherever they may be."
ETO - UK: The British Channel Islands are partially evacuated after being demilitarized to minimize casualties to be caused by imminent German attacks. On this same day, the Luftwaffe bombs Guernsey and Jersey, killing 33 and injuring 40.
Eastern Front: The Soviet Union occupies Bessarabia and the northern part of Bukovina, ceded yesterday by Romania.
MTO - Italy: The Pope offers to mediate between Britain, Germany and Italy.
MTO - Libya: The RAF bombs Tobruk. Italian Governor-General of Libya, Marshal Italo Balbo, on returning from a reconnaissance flight, is shot down and killed by jumpy Italian anti-aircraft crews. Given Balbo's opposition to Mussolini's alliance with Germany, some believe this friendly fire incident was actually an assassination.
East Africa: Day 19 of 537 of Italy's East African campaign in the lands south of Egypt.
CBI - China: Day 1,088 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 227 of 381 of the Battle of South Guangxi.
1941 — , June 28
USA: Vannevar Bush is named as director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), which had just been created by President Roosevelt.
Russian Front - Finland: Day 7 of 164 of the Battle of Hanko.
Russian Front: Day 7 of 167 of Germany's Operation BARBAROSSA, the invasion of the USSR.
Russian Front - Center: Day 7 of 12 of the Battle of Minsk. German Army Group Centre is poised to capture Minsk and trap 27 Soviet divisions.
Russian Front - Center: Day 7 of 8 of the Battle of Brest, Russia.
Russian Front - South: Day 6 of 8 of the Battle of Brody, Poland.
Romania: Romanian governmental troops, allies of Nazi Germany, launch one of the most violent pogroms (organized massacre of a particular ethnic group) in Jewish history in the city of Iaşi (Jassy), Romania, resulting in the murder of at least 13,266 Jews.
Albania: Albania declares war on the Soviet Union.
MTO - Libya: Day 80 of 256 of the Siege of Tobruk.
Middle East: Day 21 of 37 of the Battle for Syria and Lebanon.
East Africa: Day 384 of 537 of Italy's East African campaign in the lands south of Egypt.
CBI - China: Day 1,453 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
1942 — , June 28
Atlantic: Day 166 of 169 of Germany's Second "Happy Time," during which U-boats sink 609 Allied ships with little risk.
Day 2 of 14 of Germany's Hunt for Allied Convoy PQ-17. During this hunt, U-boats and the Luftwaffe will sink 24 merchant ships. Today, 3 ships from this convoy are forced to abort.
Russian Front - North: Day 294 of 872 of the Siege of Leningrad.
Russian Front - North: Day 55 of 658 of the Siege of the Kholm Pocket.
Russian Front - Center: Day 31 of 31 of Operation KREMLIN, a German diversion to trick the Soviets into thinking Moscow is their main objective instead of Stalingrad and the Caucasus.
Russian Front - South: Day 242 of 248 of the Siege of Sevastopol, Crimean Peninsula. The Germans devastate the Soviet defenses on the Sapun Ridge, the last defense outside Sevastopol.
Russian Front - South: Day 1 of 27 of the Battle of Voronezh, Russia. In order for CASE BLUE to succeed, the Germans need to take this important city on the Don River.
Russian Front - South: Day 1 of 150 of Germany's CASE BLUE, the failed offensive to take the Caucasus oil fields.
MTO - Egypt: German advance units capture Fuka and Mersa Matruh.
MTO - Libya: US HALPRO B-24s bomb the harbor at Tobruk and German tanks and vehicles along the Sollum-Matruh road.
East Africa: Day 55 of 186 of the Battle of Madagascar.
CBI - China: Day 1,818 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 45 of 124 of Japan's Zhejiang-Jiangxi Campaign, launched to punish anyone suspected of aiding the Doolittle raiders in China. Roughly 250,000 Chinese will be killed.
PTO - Alaska: Day 22 of 435 of the Battle of Kiska, Aleutian Islands. US reconnaissance parties land on Adak Island from submarines.
PTO - Malaya: Day 130 of 357 of the Battle of Timor Island.
1943 — , June 28
ETO - France: US 8th Air Force B-17s bomb the submarine pens at Saint-Nazaire and the Beaumont-le-Roger Airfield.
ETO - Germany: The RAF bombs Cologne, during which the Cologne Cathedral is badly damaged. In all, about 4,000 are killed and another 1,500 are wounded. An RAF reconnaissance plane conclusively identifies German long-range V-2 rocket launch sites at Peenemünde.
[+] show related dates
V-1 related dates...
12 Mar 44: Swedes investigate crashed V-1 from station 40 miles away
13 Jun 44: First V-1 Flying Bomb attack on England, 4 of 11 hit targets
16 Jun 44: V-1 offensive begins in earnest as 244 flying bombs strike England
19 Jun 44: Air Ministry releases the first official V-1 details
04 Aug 44: First RAF pilot destroys a V-1 flying bomb by tipping its wing
02 Sep 44: Allied advance forces V-1 rocket bases in France to cease
06 Sep 44: Battle of London ends after 80 days of V-1 rocket attacks
V-2 related dates...
20 Aug 41: Adolf Hitler authorizes the development of the V-2 missile
18 Mar 42: First A-4 rocket explodes during combustion chamber test
23 Mar 42: Von Braun's team launches first successful test of an A-4 rocket
22 Apr 43: A British Mosquito photographs German rockets at Peenemunde
27 Jun 43: British Chiefs of Staff circulate V-2 rocket report
28 Jun 43: RAF reconnaissance plane identifies Peenemunde V-2 launch site
13 Aug 43: Factory making V-2 parts bombed, setting program back
20 May 44: Polish underground captures, dismantles V-2 intact, sends to UK
08 Sep 44: First of over 3,000 German V-2 rockets hit Paris and London
27 Mar 45: The 1,115th and last V-2 rocket reaches England
02 May 45: Wernher von Braun surrenders in Austria to US troops