Germany: The "Night of the Long Knives" begins three days of over 1,000 murders and political purging against the SA throughout Germany, which gives Hitler all the power he wishes.
The architects of the purge: Hitler, Goering, Goebbels, and Hess
Adolf Hitler moved against the SA and its leader, Ernst Röhm, because Hitler saw the independence of the SA and the penchant of its members for street violence as a direct threat to his newly gained political power. Additionally, Hitler was uncomfortable with Röhm's outspoken support for a "second revolution" to redistribute wealth (in Röhm's view Hitler's election had accomplished the "nationalistic" revolution but had left unfulfilled the "socialistic" motive in National Socialism).
Hitler also used the purge to attack or eliminate critics of his new regime, as well as to settle scores with old enemies.
CBI - China: Day 359 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 20 of 139 of the Battle of Wuhan.
1939 — , June 30
CBI - China: Day 724 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 17 of 68 of the Battle of Tianjin.
CBI - Mongolia: Day 51 of 129 of the Battle of Khalkhin Gol, a border dispute between the Soviet Union and Japan.
1940 — , June 30
UK: German troops land on the British Crown dependency of Guernsey in the Channel Islands. Tomorrow they will occupy all of the Channel Islands, which will remain in their control until 12 May 45.
UK: The ceiling on the price of milk is increased to 4 pence per pint.
Atlantic: German submarines attack various Allied ships 300 miles west of Brest, France. U-30 sinks the British ship BEIGNON. U-102 sinks the British ship CLEARTON and then is sunk by the British destroyer HMS VANSITTART. U-65 sinks the Dutch ship AMSTELLAND. U-29 sinks the Greek ship ADAMASTOS.
Atlantic: Southwest of Ireland, German sub U-26 damages British steamer ZARIAN, but is forced to the surface by British corvette HMS GLADIOLUS then bombed by the RAAF. The crew of U-26 scuttles the boat before surrendering.
ETO - UK: German bombers begin a campaign against British industrial centers, beginning with a daylight raid on Hull in England and Wick in Scotland.
Germany: Germany requests that neutral nations withdraw their diplomatic missions from Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway and Luxembourg.
Romania: King Carol II of Romania renounces the guarantees given to him by the United Kingdom in 1939 and announces that hence forth his country's allegiance will be with Germany.
East Africa: Day 21 of 537 of Italy's East African campaign in the lands south of Egypt.
CBI - China: Day 1,090 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 229 of 381 of the Battle of South Guangxi.
The Governor General of Hong Kong orders the evacuation of women and children to the Philippines as the Japanese blockade the colony.
1941 — , June 30
ETO - France: Vichy France breaks off their diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union.
Russian Front - Finland: Day 2 of 142 of Operation SILVER FOX, a joint German-Finnish campaign to capture the Russian port of Murmansk in the Arctic.
Russian Front - Finland: Day 9 of 164 of the Battle of Hanko.
Russian Front: Day 9 of 167 of Germany's Operation BARBAROSSA, the invasion of the USSR.
Russian Front - Center: Day 9 of 12 of the Battle of Minsk. German Army Group Centre begins reducing the Bialystok pocket to the west of Minsk.
Russian Front - South: Day 8 of 8 of the Battle of Brody, Poland. Brody falls to the German troops.
Russian Front - South: German Army Group South captures Lvov (aka Lemberg) in Ukraine.
MTO - Libya: Day 82 of 256 of the Siege of Tobruk.
Middle East: Day 23 of 37 of the Battle for Syria and Lebanon.
East Africa: Day 386 of 537 of Italy's East African campaign in the lands south of Egypt.
CBI - China: Day 1,455 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
1942 — , June 30
USA: The New York Times reports via the London Daily Telegraph that over 1,000,000 Jews have already been killed by Nazis.
Atlantic: Day 168 of 169 of Germany's Second "Happy Time," during which U-boats sink 609 Allied ships with little risk.
Day 4 of 14 of Germany's Hunt for Allied Convoy PQ-17. During this hunt, U-boats and the Luftwaffe will sink 24 merchant ships.
While returning from a successful patrol in the Gulf of Mexico, in which she sunk 12 ships, U-158 is sunk by a US Mariner flying boat off Bermuda.
Germany: The government decrees that no foreign workers are to receive higher wages or enjoy better working conditions than the poorest of German workers. Also, all Jewish schools in Germany are forced to close.
Germany: At Auschwitz, a second gas chamber, Bunker II (the white farmhouse), is made operational at Birkenau due to the increasing number of Jews arriving.
Russian Front: The German offense now has a total of 89 divisions. While the Panzer units are fully motorized, the bulk of the ground forces are dependent on horses for transportation and supplies. This prevents the logistical lines from being able to keep up, causing many shortages. Adding to the problem is the massive number of POWs, also requiring supplies.
Russian Front - North: Day 296 of 872 of the Siege of Leningrad.
Russian Front - North: Day 57 of 658 of the Siege of the Kholm Pocket.
Russian Front - South: Day 244 of 248 of the Siege of Sevastopol, Crimean Peninsula. Supported by the Luftwaffe, German troops mount a heavy assault.
Russian Front - South: Day 3 of 27 of the Battle of Voronezh, Russia.
Russian Front - South: Day 3 of 150 of Germany's CASE BLUE, the failed offensive to take the Caucasus oil fields.
MTO: German sub U-372 sinks the British submarine depot ship MEDAY in the Mediterranean.
MTO Egypt: Axis troops reach El Alamein near Cairo and prepare to attack. The 28-day 1st Battle of El Alamein is about to begin. Although it looks as if there will be no stopping the Germans from taking all of Egypt, the Enigma code is broken and the British now know everything the Germans are doing and are planning to do.
[+] show related dates
Dates related to cryptology...
14 Mar 40: First "Bombe" decipher machine becomes operational
22 May 40: Bletchley Park cryptologists break Luftwaffe Enigma code
25 Sep 40: US discovers key to Japanese coding mechanism
09 May 41: British capture Enigma machine and code book intact
19 Jul 41: Churchill shares Enigma findings with Soviets
19 May 42: US decodes Japanese messages regarding mysterious "AF"
30 Jun 42: British completely crack the Enigma code
13 Apr 43: Decrypted Japanese code leads to plot to kill Admiral Yamamoto
07 Aug 44: IBM dedicates first program-controlled calculator
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MTO - Libya: US HALPRO B-24s night bomb the harbor at Tobruk.
East Africa: Day 57 of 186 of the Battle of Madagascar.
CBI - China: Day 1,820 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 47 of 124 of Japan's Zhejiang-Jiangxi Campaign, launched to punish anyone suspected of aiding the Doolittle raiders in China. Roughly 250,000 Chinese will be killed.
PTO - Alaska: Day 24 of 435 of the Battle of Kiska, Aleutian Islands.
PTO - Malaya: Day 132 of 357 of the Battle of Timor Island. US 5th Air Force B-17s attack Dili and Koepang.
PTO - New Guinea: US 5th Air Force bombs at Lae.
1943 — , June 30
ETO - UK: The British publish the aircraft losses incurred to date, with Axis losses of 18,031 planes and RAF losses at 9,906.
Germany: The Gestapo is given the right to decide for itself whether a criminal or political case should go to trial or proceed directly to confinement.
Russian Front - North: Day 661 of 872 of the Siege of Leningrad.
Russian Front - North: Day 422 of 658 of the Siege of the Kholm Pocket.
MTO - Italy: US 12th Air Force RAF Wellingtons night bomb at Cape San Marco and at Messina. During the day, US planes bomb at Sicily.
CBI - China: Day 2,185 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
PTO: Day 35 of 47 adrift in a raft for the survivors of B-24 GREEN HORNET that crashed 850 miles from Hawaii.
PTO - Alaska: Day 389 of 435 of the Battle of Kiska, Aleutian Islands.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 70 of 148 of the 2nd Battle of Lae-Salamaua. US 5th and 13th Air Forces provide air support.
PTO - New Guinea: Allies land on the Trobriand and Woodlark islands.
PTO - Solomon Islands: Day 11 of 67 of the Battle of New Georgia. US 5th and 13th Air Forces provide air support. The battle steps up as US and Australian troops storm many beaches including at Nassau Bay, Nono, Viru Harbor, Vangunu Island, Oloana Bay and on Rendova Island northwest of Guadalcanal.
1944 — , June 30
USA: The United States breaks off diplomatic relations with Finland.
ETO - UK: Day 18 of 86 of the V-1 "Buzz Bomb" offensive on Britain.
ETO - France: The D-Day date for the invasion of southern France is fixed for the 15th of August.
ETO - France: Day 25 of 49 of Operation OVERLORD, the Allied invasion of Normandy, France, known forever simply as D-Day. D-Day+24: Allied Air Forces provide air support. The Battle of the Scottish Corridor comes to an end as the German counter-attacks fails to eliminate it.
ETO - France: Day 25 of 62 of the Battle of Caen.
ETO - France: Day 25 of 25 of the Battle of Cherbourg. The remaining 6,000 Germans on the Cherbourg peninsula finally surrender.
ETO - France: In France, Paul Touvier, the Milice leader of Lyon, selects 7 Jewish prisoners to be executed by firing squad as a reprisal for the killing of two Vichy French leaders two days earlier by the French resistance.
Germany: A transport of 2,044 Greek Jews arrives at Auschwitz Concentration Camp. 455 men and 175 women are registered into the camp while the remainder are gassed. Later on, another transport of 1,000 Italian Jews arrives, of which 180 men and 51 women are registered while the rest are gassed.
Russian Front - Finland: Day 6 of 15 of the Battle of Tali-Ihantala. This becomes the largest battle in Scandinavian history.
Russian Front - Finland: Day 10 of 50 of the Battle of Karelia. Soviet troops continue their offensive against the Finns in eastern Karelia between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega in northern Russia.
Russian Front - North: Day 150 of 191 of the Battle of the Narva Isthmus, Estonia. Both German and Soviet troops remain locked in their defensive positions.
MTO: US 15th Air Force bombs targets in Hungary and Yugoslavia.
MTO - Italy: Day 15 of 34 of the Battle of Ancona (north of Rome). Allied Air Forces provide air support.
CBI - Burma: Day 118 of 166 of the UK's Operation THURSDAY.
CBI - Burma: Day 113 of 147 of the Battle of Myitkyina. US 10th Air Force provides air support.
CBI - Burma: Day 91 of 302 of the Chinese Salween Offensive. US 14th Air Force provides air support.
CBI - China: Day 2,551 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 75 of 259 of Japan's Operation ICHI-GO.
Day 9 of 48 of the Battle of Hengyang.
CBI - India: Day 115 of 118 of the Battle of Imphal-Kohima. The Japanese continue retreating back into Burma.
PTO - Japan: The USS TANG sinks the unescorted Japanese transport NIKKIN MARU between Kyushu and Dalian, China.
PTO - Mariana Islands: Day 16 of 25 of the Battle of Saipan. US 7th Air Force provides air support.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 35 of 83 of the Battle of Biak. There are still 3,000 Japanese soldiers on the island who won't give up.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 199 of 597 of the Battle of New Britain. US 13th Air Force provides air support.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 70 of 481 of the Battle of Western New Guinea. 5th Air Force provides air support.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 17 of 80 of the Battle of Lone Tree Hill.
PTO - Solomon Islands: Day 243 of 295 of the Battle of the Bougainville Islands. US 13th Air Force provides air support.
1945 — , June 30
CBI - Burma: Japanese troops in Burma massacre 600 natives in the village of Kalagon who have been accused of helping British paratroopers and guerrillas. The bodies are thrown down deep wells and when filled up, the soldiers pound the corpses to make them fit better.
CBI - China: Day 2,916 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 91 of 91 of the Battle of Zhijiang. US 14th Air Force provides air support. The Chinese take Liuchow and other towns along the Indo-Chinese border.
PTO - Borneo: Day 21 of 67 of the Battle of North Borneo. US 5th and 13th Air Forces provide air support.
PTO - Japan: The USS TREPANG sinks a Japanese freighter. The Japanese survivors refuse to be picked up, and thus are left to die.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 551 of 597 of the Battle of New Britain. US 10th Air Force provides air support.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 435 of 481 of the Battle of Western New Guinea. US 10th Air Force provides air support.
PTO - Philippines: Day 253 of 299 of the 2nd Battle of the Philippines, aka the Liberation of the Philippines or the Philippines Campaign.
PTO - Philippines: Day 198 of 244 of the Battle of Luzon. The battle is said to over but hold-outs will continue fighting for a couple of more months.
PTO - Philippines: Day 113 of 159 of the Battle of Mindanao Island. The battle is said to over but hold-outs will continue fighting for a couple of more months.
PTO - Philippines: Day 105 of 135 of the Battle of the Visayas region. The battle is said to over but hold-outs will continue fighting for a couple of more months.
Day-By-Day listings for June 30 were last modified on Sunday, January 31, 2016