USA: Army and Navy planes sink the light cruiser USS FRANKFORT in the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, as an experiment on attacking ships.
1925 — , July 18
Germany: Adolf Hitler's book Mein Kampf is published, laying out a clear road map of Nazi ideology and the evil it will bring down on the world. Over ten million copies will be sold or distributed as mandatory reading throughout the Third Reich. Outside Germany, most will dismiss the book as nothing more than fanatical rhetoric.
The most common cover of Mein Kampf
Hitler rather clearly outlined his political ideology and future plans for Germany in Mein Kampf, including: first, his main thesis of "the Jewish peril," which claimed a Jewish conspiracy to gain world leadership; second, his hatred of communism; and third, Germany's need to conquer vast amounts of territory for Lebensraum (living space).
An English language version of his book was translated and published as a two volume set in the UK in 1939. It was the only translation officially endorsed by the Nazi party during Hitler's lifetime.
Related dates (Mein Kampf)...
01 Apr 24: Hitler sentenced to prison, dictates Mein Kampf
18 Jul 25: Mein Kampf is published, clearly defining Nazi ideology
Spain: Day 2 of 985 of the Spanish Civil War. An uprising against the garrisons in Spanish Morocco spreads to Spain and the Guardia Civil and the Falange join the rebel cause against the Republicans.
1937 — , July 18
Spain: Day 367 of 985 of the Spanish Civil War.
CBI - China: Day 12 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 12 of 33 of the 2nd Battle of Hebei.
Day 5 of 22 of the Battle of Tainjin-Beijing.
1938 — , July 18
USA: Skilled American aviator Douglas Corrigan takes off from Brooklyn, New York, ostensibly heading for California, but "mistakenly" ends up landing in Ireland instead. He is henceforth given the nickname "Wrong Way" Corrigan, a nickname he quickly embraces to promote himself.
New York Post headline upon "Wrong Way's" return
Corrigan claimed his unauthorized flight was due to a navigational error, caused by heavy cloud cover that obscured landmarks and low-light conditions, causing him to misread his compass. However, he was a skilled aircraft mechanic (one of the builders of Charles Lindbergh's Spirit of St Louis) and had made several modifications to his own plane, preparing it for his transatlantic flight. He had been denied permission to make a nonstop flight from New York to Ireland, and his "navigational error" was seen as deliberate. Nevertheless, he never publicly admitted to having flown to Ireland intentionally.
New York ticker tape parade for Wrong Way Corrigan
Corrigan endorsed many "wrong-way" products including a watch that ran backwards. In World War II, he tested bombers and flew in the Ferry Command, a division of the Air Transport Command.
Spain: Day 732 of 985 of the Spanish Civil War.
CBI - China: Day 377 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 38 of 139 of the Battle of Wuhan.
1939 — , July 18
CBI - China: Day 742 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 35 of 68 of the Battle of Tianjin.
CBI - Mongolia: Day 69 of 129 of the Battle of Khalkhin Gol, a border dispute between the Soviet Union and Japan.
1940 — , July 18
Atlantic: German sub U-99 sinks the British ship WOODBURY 150 miles southwest of Ireland. U-58 sinks the Norwegian ship GYDA 30 miles northwest of Ireland.
UK: The United Kingdom recognizes the Czechoslovakian government-in-exile in London.
ETO - UK: Day 9 of 114 of the Battle of Britain. The Luftwaffe bombs Montrose Aerodrome on the east coast of Scotland and sinks the lightship EAST GOODWIN LIGHT VESSEL. Light Vessels are unmanned floating lighthouses.
ETO - France: During the evening, the RAF attacks German barges at Boulogne, France and bombs the Dortmund-Ems Canal in Germany.
MTO: French aircraft bomb at Gibraltar in retaliation for recent British attacks on French warships, but most of their bombs fell into the sea.
East Africa: Day 39 of 537 of Italy's East African campaign in the lands south of Egypt.
PTO - Japan: Prince Konoye forms a new Japanese Cabinet with Army and Navy nominees.
CBI - China: Day 1,108 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 247 of 381 of the Battle of South Guangxi.
1941 — , July 18
South America: Day 14 of 27 of the Ecuadorian-Peruvian War, a territorial dispute between Peru and Ecuador.
UK: The USSR signs a friendship treaty with the Czechoslovakian government-in-exile in London.
Russian Front: Finland establishes a diplomatic relationship with the Japanese-sponsored puppet state of Manchukuo.
Russian Front - Finland: Day 20 of 142 of Operation SILVER FOX, a joint German-Finnish campaign to capture the Russian port of Murmansk in the Arctic.
Russian Front - Finland: Day 18 of 140 of Operation ARCTIC FOX, a joint German-Finnish campaign against Soviet Northern Front defenses at Salla, Finland.
Russian Front - Finland: Day 27 of 164 of the Battle of Hanko.
Russian Front - Finland: Day 9 of 18 of Finland's reconquest of Ladoga, Karelia. The Finns continue their offensive on Lake Ladoga northeast of Leningrad.
Russian Front: Day 27 of 167 of Germany's Operation BARBAROSSA, the invasion of the USSR.
Russian Front - North: Soviet troops continue advancing to the Lake Ilmen area near Leningrad.
Russian Front - Center: Day 13 of 31 of the 1st Battle of Smolensk, Russia.
Russian Front - Center: Day 6 of 12 of the Battle of Zhlobin, Belarus.
Russian Front - South: In Ukraine, units of German Army Group South continue preparing for a major assault on Kiev.
Russian Front - South: Day 4 of 25 of the Battle of Uman, Ukraine. The Romanian 3rd Army reaches the Dniester River.
Russian Front - South: Day 17 of 21 of the Battle of Bessarabia, Russia. German and Romanian troops continue their attack at Bessarabia to take the land and city that Romania was forced to cede to the USSR a year ago.
Russian Front - South: German and Romanian troops keep pushing toward Vinnitsa and the Black Sea port of Odessa, Ukraine.
MTO - Libya: Day 100 of 256 of the Siege of Tobruk.
East Africa: Day 404 of 537 of Italy's East African campaign in the lands south of Egypt.
CBI - China: Day 1,473 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
1942 — , July 18
Atlantic: German sub U-160 sinks the transport ship CARMONA southeast of Trinidad while U-575 sinks the sailing vessels GLACIER and COMRADE and damages the tanker SAN GASPAR.
Russian Front - North: Day 314 of 872 of the Siege of Leningrad.
Russian Front - North: Day 75 of 658 of the Siege of the Kholm Pocket.
Russian Front - Center: Day 17 of 22 of Germany's Operation SEYDLITZ, a plan to trap and capture numerous Soviet troops.
Russian Front - South: Day 21 of 27 of the Battle of Voronezh, Russia.
Russian Front - South: Day 21 of 150 of Germany's CASE BLUE, the failed offensive to take the Caucasus oil fields. Hitler changes his battle plans again, causing more problems than solved.
MTO - Egypt: Day 18 of 27 of the 1st Battle of El Alamein.
East Africa: Day 75 of 186 of the Battle of Madagascar.
CBI - China: Day 1,838 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 65 of 124 of Japan's Zhejiang-Jiangxi Campaign, launched to punish anyone suspected of aiding the Doolittle raiders in China. Roughly 250,000 Chinese will be killed.
US 10th Air Force bombs Tien Ho Airfield.
PTO - Alaska: Day 42 of 435 of the Battle of Kiska, Aleutian Islands.
PTO - Malaya: Day 150 of 357 of the Battle of Timor Island.
PTO - New Guinea: US 5th Air Force bombs the harbor at Rabaul on New Britain Island.
PTO - Russia: Soviet submarine ShCh-138 suffers an accidental detonation of her own torpedoes at Nikolayevsk-on-Amur, Khabarovsk Krai, far eastern Russia.
1943 — , July 18
Atlantic: US Navy blimp K-74 detects German sub U-134 between Florida and Cuba and attacks the sub. However, U-134's anti-aircraft guns down the blimp making it the only US blimp to be shot down during the war.
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Related dates (submarines)...
16 Sep 39: U-31 participates in WWII's first convoy attack
11 Mar 40: U-31 is sunk for the first of two times
Atlantic: German sub U-508 sinks the passenger ship INCOMATI south of Lagos, British West Africa.
Russian Front - North: Day 679 of 872 of the Siege of Leningrad.
Russian Front - North: Day 440 of 658 of the Siege of the Kholm Pocket.
Russian Front - Center: Day 14 of 50 of the Battle of Kursk, Russia.
Russian Front - Center: Day 7 of 38 of the Battle of Orel, Russia.
Russian Front - South: Day 6 of 48 of the USSR's Lvov-Sandomierz Offensive. The German troops at Brody are surrounded.
MTO - Italy: Day 10 of 40 of the Battle of Sicily. RAF and US Air Forces provide air support. US troops capture Caltanisetta and the Canadian troops take Valguarnerna, while the British 8th Army approaches Catania.
CBI - China: Day 2,203 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
CBI - Indochina: US 14th Air Force bombs shipping at Haiphong and Hongay.
PTO - Alaska: Day 407 of 435 of the Battle of Kiska, Aleutian Islands. US 11th Air Force bombs Gertrude Cove and Main Camp on Kiska Island.
PTO - Gilbert Islands: US 7th Air Force bombs Betio Island in the Tarawa Atoll.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 88 of 148 of the 2nd Battle of Lae-Salamaua. US 5th and 13th Air Forces provide air support.
PTO - Solomon Islands: Day 29 of 67 of the Battle of New Georgia. US 5th and 13th Air Forces provide air support. The US Army and Marine Corps make a successful joint offensive at Laiana Beach.
1944 — , July 18
Atlantic: The British frigate HMS BALFOUR sinks German sub U-672 north of Guernsey in the English Channel.
Atlantic: An RAF Catalina plane sinks German sub U-742 west of Narvik, Norway.
ETO - UK: Day 36 of 86 of the V-1 "Buzz Bomb" offensive on Britain.
ETO - France: Day 43 of 49 of Operation OVERLORD, the Allied invasion of Normandy, France, known forever simply as D-Day. D-Day+42: Allied Air Forces provide air support. US troops capture St Lo.
ETO - France: Day 43 of 62 of the Battle of Caen. The British launch Operation GOODWOOD against stiff resistance near Caen in what becomes known as the "Death Ride of the Amoured Divisions." British lose 200 tanks and 1,500 men while destroying 109 Panzers.
Russian Front - Finland: Day 28 of 50 of the Battle of Karelia. Soviet troops continue their offensive against the Finns in eastern Karelia between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega in northern Russia. German sub U-479 damages the Soviet submarine chaser MO-304 in Vyborg Bay, Finland (today Russia).
Russian Front - North: Day 168 of 191 of the Battle of the Narva Isthmus, Estonia. Both German and Soviet troops remain locked in their defensive positions.
Russian Front - Center: Day 14 of 16 of the Battle of Vilnius, Lithuania.
Russian Front - Center: Day 14 of 27 of the Battle of Siauliai, Lithuania.
Russian Front - Center: Day 14 of 23 of the Battle of Belostock, Poland.
Russian Front - Center: Day 6 of 15 of the Battle of Lvov, Poland. The Soviets have 40,000 German troops at Brody, Poland, trapped.
Russian Front - Center: Day 6 of 15 of the Battle of Stanislav, Poland.
Russian Front - Center: Day 1 of 16 of the Battle of Lublin, Poland. Soviets cross the Bug River and head toward Lublin to drive German Army Group Centre out of Poland and Belarus.
MTO - Germany: US 15th Air Force attack airfields and aircraft related targets in Germany.
MTO - Greece: German troops round up the 2,000 Jews at Rhodes and Kos to be deported to the Auschwitz Concentration Camp in Poland.
MTO - Italy: Day 33 of 34 of the Battle of Ancona (north of Rome). Allied Air Forces provide air support. US troops attack Leghorn. Polish troops enter Ancona.
CBI - Burma: Day 136 of 166 of the UK's Operation THURSDAY. US 10th Air Force provides air support.
CBI - Burma: Day 131 of 147 of the Battle of Myitkyina. US 10th Air Force provides air support.
CBI - Burma: Day 109 of 302 of the Chinese Salween Offensive. US 14th Air Force provides air support.
CBI - China: Day 2,569 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 93 of 259 of Japan's Operation ICHI-GO.
Day 27 of 48 of the Battle of Hengyang. US 14th Air Force provides air support.
PTO - Caroline Islands: US 7th Air Force B-25s bomb targets in the Truk Atoll.
PTO - Dutch New Guinea: Day 17 of 61 of the Battle of Noemfoor. Although the island has been declared secured, bitter fighting from Japanese continues.
PTO - Japan: Hideki Tojo resigns as Prime Minister of Japan due to numerous setbacks in the war effort, from the Battle of Midway to the fall of Saipan. He will be officially replaced by Kuniaki Koiso in four days.
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Related dates (Tojo)...
26 Feb 36: Failed socialist coup rewards Tojo with leadership posts
01 Mar 37: Tojo promoted to Chief of Staff of an army in China
22 Jul 40: Tojo is appointed to cabinet post as Army Minister
17 Oct 41: Tojo is appointed Prime Minister of Japan
02 Nov 41: Hirohito gives Tojo consent to go to war
27 Nov 41: Tojo rejects American counter-proposal for peace
18 Jul 44: Tojo resigns as PM, becomes Chief of Army General Staff
11 Sep 45: Tojo survives suicide attempt before arrest
12 Nov 48: Tojo is sentenced to death by Int'l Military Tribunal
23 Dec 48: Tojo is executed by hanging for war crimes
PTO - Mariana Islands: US 7th Air Force bombs targets on Tinian and Pagan Islands.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 53 of 83 of the Battle of Biak. There are still 3,000 Japanese soldiers on the island who won't give up.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 217 of 597 of the Battle of New Britain. US 13th Air Force provides air support.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 88 of 481 of the Battle of Western New Guinea. 5th Air Force provides air support.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 35 of 80 of the Battle of Lone Tree Hill.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 9 of 47 of the Battle of Driniumor River, a failed Japanese offense on US troops near Aitape.
PTO - Solomon Islands: Day 261 of 295 of the Battle of the Bougainville Islands. US 13th Air Force provides air support.
1945 — , July 18
Canada: In Halifax, Nova Scotia, a magazine at Bedford Naval blows up. Thousands have to be evacuated as explosions shake the town for 24 hours while brave firefighters are able to prevent the flames from reaching the main magazine.
CBI - Burma: Japanese troops begin an attempt to break out of Burma.
CBI - China: Day 2,934 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
CBI - Indochina: US 14th Air Force attacks targets in French Indochina.
PTO - Borneo: Day 39 of 67 of the Battle of North Borneo. US 5th and 13th Air Forces provide air support.
PTO - Dutch East Indies: Day 18 of 21 of the 2nd Battle of Balikpapan.
PTO - Japan: The USS NORTH CAROLINA, USS ALABAMA, USS IOWA, USS MISSOURI, USS WISCONSIN and British battleship HMS KING GEORGE V lay down a heavy barrage on Hitachi, Ibaraki Prefecture.
PTO - Japan: Allied carrier planes hit the Japanese naval forces in Tokyo Bay, sinking 12 ships and damaging nine, including the battleship NAGATO.
PTO - Marshall Islands: The USS WASP launches an air strike against Wake Island.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 569 of 597 of the Battle of New Britain. US 10th Air Force provides air support.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 453 of 481 of the Battle of Western New Guinea. US 10th Air Force provides air support.
PTO - Philippines: Day 271 of 299 of the 2nd Battle of the Philippines, aka the Liberation of the Philippines or the Philippines Campaign.
PTO - Philippines: Day 216 of 244 of the Battle of Luzon. The battle is said to over but hold-outs will continue fighting until the end of the war.
PTO - Philippines: Day 131 of 159 of the Battle of Mindanao Island. The battle is said to over but hold-outs will continue fighting until the end of the war.
PTO - Philippines: Day 123 of 135 of the Battle of the Visayas region. The battle is said to over but hold-outs will continue fighting for several weeks.
Day-By-Day listings for July 18 were last modified on Sunday, January 31, 2016