Germany: Adolf Hitler formally becomes the head of the Nationalsozialistische Deutches Arbeiter Partei (NSDAP), or the Nazi Party.
1927 — , July 29
USSR: In Russia, Metropolitan Sergei Stragorodsky, the most senior prelate, issues a public declaration that the church recognizes the Soviet state as its "Civil Fatherland." Hundreds of clergy refuse to accept the church coming under state control and by 1930 an estimated one fifth of all those imprisoned in the Solovki camp complex will be clerical victims of persecution.
1936 — , July 29
Spain: Day 13 of 985 of the Spanish Civil War.
1937 — , July 29
Spain: Day 378 of 985 of the Spanish Civil War.
CBI - China: Day 23 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 23 of 33 of the 2nd Battle of Hebei.
Day 16 of 22 of the Battle of Tainjin-Beijing. The Japanese attack Tianjin. In Tongzhou, near Beiping, 5,000 soldiers of the Japanese-trained East Hebei Army mutiny against the Japanese. The rebellion gets out of control. Japanese civilians are rounded up and massacred and many Japanese women are raped. Most of the city is burned down before the East Hebei Army officers can regain control of their men. Later, this incident becomes the excuse for having started the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
1938 — , July 29
Spain: Day 743 of 985 of the Spanish Civil War.
CBI - China: Day 388 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 49 of 139 of the Battle of Wuhan.
CBI - Russia: Day 1 of 14 of the Battle of Lake Khasan. Japanese and Russian troops clash on the border region between Manchukuo and Russia, starting the battle.
1939 — , July 29
CBI - China: Day 753 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 46 of 68 of the Battle of Tianjin.
CBI - Mongolia: Day 80 of 129 of the Battle of Khalkhin Gol, a border dispute between the Soviet Union and Japan.
1940 — , July 29
Atlantic: German sub U-99 sinks the British ship CLAN MENZIES 80 miles west of Ireland.
ETO - UK: Day 20 of 114 of the Battle of Britain. The Luftwaffe attacks at Dover Harbor.
East Africa: Day 50 of 537 of Italy's East African campaign in the lands south of Egypt.
CBI - China: Day 1,119 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 258 of 381 of the Battle of South Guangxi.
1941 — , July 29
South America: Day 25 of 27 of the Ecuadorian-Peruvian War, a territorial dispute between Peru and Ecuador.
Atlantic: The German auxiliary cruiser ORION sinks the British freighter CHAUCER in the South Atlantic.
USSR: Marshal Georgy Zhukov, during an argument with Stalin, asks to be relieved as Russian Chief of Staff and sent to the Russian Front. His "wish" is granted.
Russian Front - Finland: Day 31 of 142 of Operation SILVER FOX, a joint German-Finnish campaign to capture the Russian port of Murmansk in the Arctic.
Russian Front - Finland: Day 29 of 140 of Operation ARCTIC FOX, a joint German-Finnish campaign against Soviet Northern Front defenses at Salla, Finland.
Russian Front - Finland: Day 38 of 164 of the Battle of Hanko.
Russian Front: Day 38 of 167 of Germany's Operation BARBAROSSA, the invasion of the USSR.
Russian Front - Center: Day 24 of 31 of the 1st Battle of Smolensk, Russia. German troops continue crushing the Smolensk pocket.
Russian Front - Center: Day 6 of 38 of the Battle of Gomel, Belarus.
Russian Front - South: Day 15 of 25 of the Battle of Uman, Ukraine.
Russian Front - South: German and Romanian troops keep pushing toward Vinnitsa and the Black Sea port of Odessa, Ukraine.
MTO - Libya: Day 111 of 256 of the Siege of Tobruk.
East Africa: Day 415 of 537 of Italy's East African campaign in the lands south of Egypt.
CBI - China: Day 1,484 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
1942 — , July 29
Russian Front - North: Day 325 of 872 of the Siege of Leningrad.
Russian Front - North: Day 86 of 658 of the Siege of the Kholm Pocket.
Russian Front - South: Day 32 of 150 of Germany's CASE BLUE, the failed offensive to take the Caucasus oil fields.
Russian Front - South: Day 7 of 20 of Germany's Operation EDELWEISS. German Army Group South captures Proletarskaya and begins crossing the Manych River in the Caucasus.
East Africa: Day 86 of 186 of the Battle of Madagascar.
CBI - China: Day 1,849 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 76 of 124 of Japan's Zhejiang-Jiangxi Campaign, launched to punish anyone suspected of aiding the Doolittle raiders in China. Roughly 250,000 Chinese will be killed.
PTO - Alaska: Day 53 of 435 of the Battle of Kiska, Aleutian Islands. US 11th Air Force bombs vessels and installations in the Kiska Harbor.
PTO - Malaya: Day 161 of 357 of the Battle of Timor Island.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 9 of 119 of the Battle of the Kokoda Track. 5th Air Force provides air support. Japanese troops recapture the Kokoda airfield.
1943 — , July 29
ETO - Germany: The mass evacuation of a million civilians from Hamburg is ordered after the recent heavy bombings. US 8th Air Force B-17s bomb at Kiel and Warnemunde.
Spain: The US ambassador in Madrid demands that the Spanish government withdraw their division of Spanish volunteers fighting for Germany on the Eastern Front.
Russian Front - North: Day 690 of 872 of the Siege of Leningrad.
Russian Front - North: Day 451 of 658 of the Siege of the Kholm Pocket.
Russian Front - Center: Day 25 of 50 of the Battle of Kursk, Russia.
Russian Front - Center: Day 18 of 38 of the Battle of Orel, Russia.
Russian Front - South: Day 7 of 23 of the Battle of Belgorod, Russia.
Russian Front - South: Day 17 of 48 of the USSR's Lvov-Sandomierz Offensive. Soviet troops establish a bridgehead across the Vistula near Sandomierz.
MTO: The Italian sub PIETRO MICCA is torpedoed and sunk by the sub HMS TROOPER in the Mediterranean Sea.
MTO - Italy: Day 21 of 40 of the Battle of Sicily. RAF and US Air Forces provide air support. US 7th Army reaches near Santo Stefano di Camastra and attacks Mistretta, while the British 8th Army attack at Catenanuova-Adrano.
CBI - Burma: US 10th Air Force bombs the Mu River bridge between Ywataung and Monywa.
CBI - China: Day 2,214 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
US 14th Air Force bombs the shipping and dockyard installations at Hong Kong.
PTO - Alaska: Day 418 of 435 of the Battle of Kiska, Aleutian Islands. US 11th Air Force bombs the Main Camp area on Kiska Island.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 99 of 148 of the 2nd Battle of Lae-Salamaua. US 5th and 13th Air Forces provide air support.
PTO - Solomon Islands: Day 40 of 67 of the Battle of New Georgia. US 5th and 13th Air Forces provide air support.
1944 — , July 29
ETO - UK: Day 47 of 86 of the V-1 "Buzz Bomb" offensive on Britain.
ETO - France: Day 5 of 29 of the Breakout Battle of Normandy. Day 5 of 7 of Operation COBRA. German troops continue retreating from Normandy.
ETO - France: Day 54 of 62 of the Battle of Caen. Canadian troops continue attacking south of Caen.
ETO - Germany: The RAF bombs Stuttgart. US 8th Air Force bombs several oil refineries in Germany.
Russian Front - Finland: Day 4 of 19 of the Battle of Ilomantsi, North Karelia.
Russian Front - Finland: Day 39 of 50 of the Battle of Karelia. Soviet troops continue their offensive against the Finns in eastern Karelia between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega in northern Russia.
Russian Front - North: Day 179 of 191 of the Battle of the Narva Isthmus, Estonia. Day 5 of 19 of the Battle of Tannenberg Line, Estonia. The Germans continue holding the Sinimaed Hills west of Narva.
Russian Front - Center: Day 25 of 27 of the Battle of Siauliai, Lithuania. The Soviets reach the Baltic coast to the west of Riga, Latvia, splitting German Army Group North in Estonia and eastern Latvia.
Russian Front - Center: Day 2 of 32 of the Battle of Kaunas, Lithuania.
Russian Front - Center: Day 12 of 16 of the Battle of Lublin, Poland. Soviets troops continue crossing the Vistula River near Magnuszew, Poland.
Russian Front - Center: Day 2 of 2 of the Battle of Sandomierz, Poland. Soviet troops enter and secure Sandomierz.
MTO - Hungary: US 15th Air Force attack targets at Kecskemet.
MTO - Italy: Bad weather brings the battles to a halt.
CBI - Burma: Day 147 of 166 of the UK's Operation THURSDAY. US 10th Air Force provides air support.
CBI - Burma: Day 142 of 147 of the Battle of Myitkyina. US 10th Air Force provides air support.
CBI - Burma: Day 120 of 302 of the Chinese Salween Offensive. US 14th Air Force provides air support.
CBI - China: Day 2,580 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 104 of 259 of Japan's Operation ICHI-GO.
Day 38 of 48 of the Battle of Hengyang. US 14th Air Force provides air support.
US 20th Air Force B-29s bomb the Showa Steel Works at Anshan and harbor at Taku.
PTO - Alaska: US 11th Air Force bomb at Shimushu Island and Paramushiru Island.
PTO - Dutch New Guinea: Day 28 of 61 of the Battle of Noemfoor. Although the island has been declared secured, bitter fighting from Japanese continues.
PTO - Mariana Islands: Day 6 of 9 of the Battle of Tinian. US 7th Air Force provides air support.
PTO - Mariana Islands: Day 9 of 21 of the 2nd Battle of Guam. US 7th Air Force provides air support. Although this battle is declared as completed, it'll be a while before it's really over. US Marines secure the Orote Peninsula.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 64 of 83 of the Battle of Biak. There are still 3,000 Japanese soldiers on the island who won't give up.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 228 of 597 of the Battle of New Britain. US 13th Air Force provides air support.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 99 of 481 of the Battle of Western New Guinea. 5th Air Force provides air support.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 46 of 80 of the Battle of Lone Tree Hill.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 20 of 47 of the Battle of Driniumor River, a failed Japanese offense on US troops near Aitape.
PTO - Solomon Islands: Day 272 of 295 of the Battle of the Bougainville Islands. US 13th Air Force provides air support.
1945 — , July 29
PTO: Japanese sub I-58 sinks the heavy cruiser USS INDIANAPOLIS in the Philippine Sea, resulting in the loss of 300 crewmen. A radio distress call is sent out before she sinks, but message is ignored by the three stations that receive it, leaving 880 survivors adrift for four days at the mercy of the elements and sharks. Nearly 600 will die before help arrives.
The USS INDIANAPOLIS at Pearl Harbor, circa 1937
The INDIANAPOLIS had just delivered critical parts and about half of the world's supply of Uranium-235 for the first atomic bomb to the air base at Tinian. When torpedoed by the Japanese submarine, she sunk in 12 minutes. Three stations received the distress call she sent; however, none acted upon it. One commander was drunk, another had ordered his men not to disturb him and a third thought it was a Japanese prank. For a long time the Navy denied that a distress call had been sent. The receipt of the call came to light only after the release of declassified records.
What the 800 sailors experienced adrift is excruciating to contemplate. The INDIANAPOLIS sinking resulted in the most shark attacks on humans in history.