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Selected: August 3
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1936 — , August 3

  • Spain: Day 18 of 985 of the Spanish Civil War.

1937 — , August 3

  • Spain: Day 383 of 985 of the Spanish Civil War.
  • CBI - China: Day 28 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 28 of 33 of the 2nd Battle of Hebei.
    • Day 21 of 22 of the Battle of Tainjin-Beijing. The Chinese troops defending Tianjin begin withdrawing.
    • Day 3 of 12 of the Battle of Chahar.

1938 — , August 3

  • Spain: Day 748 of 985 of the Spanish Civil War.
  • CBI - China: Day 393 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 54 of 139 of the Battle of Wuhan.
  • CBI - Russia: Day 6 of 14 of the Battle of Lake Khasan, a border dispute between the Soviet Union and Japan. The Japanese capture Taihu County.

1939 — , August 3

  • CBI - China: Day 758 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 51 of 68 of the Battle of Tianjin.
  • CBI - Mongolia: Day 85 of 129 of the Battle of Khalkhin Gol, a border dispute between the Soviet Union and Japan.

1940 — , August 3

  • USA: Japanese luxury ocean liner HIKAWA MARU drops off 82 Jewish refugees at Pier 89 in Seattle, becoming the first Japanese ship to take on Jewish refugees escaping Nazi persecution via Japan.
    Spotlight...

    The HIKAWA MARU ocean liner in Yokohama, Japan

    The service provided on the HIKAWA MARU was famous for combining splendid food and beautiful art deco interiors. She was often referred to as the Queen of the Pacific. Charlie Chaplin and Kano Jigoro (founder of Judo) are amongst the ship's more notable former passengers.

    After Japan's entry to the war HIKAWA MARU became a hospital ship, and as a result, she ultimately survived the Allied campaign against the Japanese merchant fleet. After the end of the war she was used by the US for troop repatriation until 1947. Afterward, the HIKAWA MARU was returned to Japan and carried cargo between Japan and the US.

    In 1954 she was taken out of service, but following a refit she returned to carrying passengers across the Pacific. Falling passenger numbers due to the growth of air travel led to the eventual termination of the service in 1960.

    In 1961 HIKAWA MARU became a floating youth hostel and museum permanently berthed at Yokohama. In December 2006 the HIKAWA MARU museum was closed and doubts about her future were raised. Happily, NYK Line began the restoration of the HIKAWA MARU in August 2007, and the ship was reopened to the public on 25 April 2008, the vessel's 78th birthday.

    Note:

    Japan had a very interesting relationship with and outlook on Jewish people, which began with the 1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War being financed by $200 million in loans from a Jewish American banker. Japan soon became an outspoken supporter of establishing a Jewish homeland in Palestine.

    By the 1931 invasion of Manchuria, Japanese national policy was very friendly toward Jews fleeing an increasingly unfriendly atmosphere in Europe. Plus, Japan needed to populate their new puppet state of Manchukuo with stable, industrious settlers and welcomed Jews as such.

    Today's event of the HIKAWA MARU again reflects Japan's attitude in contradiction to that of their Axis partners.

  • Atlantic: German sub U-57 sinks the Swedish ship ATOS north of Ireland. 300 miles off of the coast of Senegal in western Africa, U-A stops the Yugoslavian ship YAD and after discovering she is carrying chemicals from South Africa to the US, they put the crew into life boats and sink the ship.
  • ETO - UK: Two Japanese businessmen are arrested in London. In response to a protest by the Japanese Ambassador, British authorities deny that their arrest is a reprisal for the arrest of British citizens in Japan just six days prior.
  • ETO - UK: Winston Churchill warns British citizens not to believe rumors that the threat of invasion is over.
  • ETO - UK: Day 25 of 114 of the Battle of Britain. A heavy fog restricts the German Luftwaffe to a small number of raids on Britain during the day. During the night, German bombers attack Bradford, Liverpool, Crewe and the Firth of Forth.
  • USSR: The new Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic becomes a member nation of the Soviet Union.
  • East Africa: Day 55 of 537 of Italy's East African campaign in the lands south of Egypt. 25,000 Italian troops enter into British Somaliland from Abyssinia.
  • CBI - China: Day 1,124 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 263 of 381 of the Battle of South Guangxi.

1941 — , August 3

  • Russian Front - Finland: Day 36 of 142 of Operation SILVER FOX, a joint German-Finnish campaign to capture the Russian port of Murmansk in the Arctic.
  • Russian Front - Finland: Day 34 of 140 of Operation ARCTIC FOX, a joint German-Finnish campaign against Soviet Northern Front defenses at Salla, Finland.
  • Russian Front - Finland: Day 43 of 164 of the Battle of Hanko.
  • Russian Front: Day 43 of 167 of Germany's Operation BARBAROSSA, the invasion of the USSR.
  • Russian Front - North: Army Group North continues advancing toward Leningrad.
  • Russian Front - Center: Day 29 of 31 of the 1st Battle of Smolensk, Russia. The Germans encircle and capture 38,000 Soviet prisoners at Roslavl.
  • Russian Front - Center: Day 11 of 38 of the Battle of Gomel, Belarus. Heavy fighting continues at Gomel.
  • Russian Front - South: Day 20 of 25 of the Battle of Uman, Ukraine. Romanian troops cross the Dniester River.
  • Russian Front - South: German and Romanian troops keep pushing toward Vinnitsa and the Black Sea port of Odessa, Ukraine.
  • MTO - Libya: Day 116 of 256 of the Siege of Tobruk. The RAF bombs Axis positions and nearby airfields.
  • East Africa: Day 420 of 537 of Italy's East African campaign in the lands south of Egypt.
  • CBI - China: Day 1,489 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.

1942 — , August 3

  • USA: The FBI arrests 89 "dangerous aliens" inside the US.
  • Russian Front - North: Day 330 of 872 of the Siege of Leningrad.
  • Russian Front - North: Day 91 of 658 of the Siege of the Kholm Pocket.
  • Russian Front - Center: Day 5 of 64 of the 1st Battle of Rzhev-Sychevka, Russia. German troops near Rzhev continue their attempts to break their encirclement.
  • Russian Front - South: Day 37 of 150 of Germany's CASE BLUE, the failed offensive to take the Caucasus oil fields. German Army Group B continues fighting the Soviets near Kalach on the road to Stalingrad.
  • Russian Front - South: Day 12 of 20 of Germany's Operation EDELWEISS. German Army Group A continues branching out in the Caucasus region.
  • East Africa: Day 91 of 186 of the Battle of Madagascar.
  • CBI - China: Day 1,854 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 81 of 124 of Japan's Zhejiang-Jiangxi Campaign, launched to punish anyone suspected of aiding the Doolittle raiders in China. Roughly 250,000 Chinese will be killed.
  • PTO - Alaska: Day 58 of 435 of the Battle of Kiska, Aleutian Islands. US 11th Air Force bombs at Tanaga in the Kanaga Islands and on Kiska Island.
  • PTO - Malaya: Day 166 of 357 of the Battle of Timor Island.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 14 of 119 of the Battle of the Kokoda Track. 5th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO - Solomon Islands: US 5th Army Air Force continues attacking the north coast of Guadalcanal where the US invasion troops will soon be landing.

1943 — , August 3

  • MTO - Italy: General Patton visits a field hospital in Sicily and slaps Private Charles H Kuhl for cowardice, as Kuhl has suffered no physical wounds.
    Spotlight...

    Scene from the 1970 film "Patton" with George C Scott playing the role of General Patton and the slapped soldier played by Tim Considine

    Although the film condensed the two slapping incidents into one (this, and another on 10 Aug 43), there may have even been a third. There were no labels such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder back then; even War Nerves or being Shell Shocked was generally a temporary condition treated with a short respite before being returned to the front.

    Patton's management style aside, he knew the war could be lost. He needed each and every man in his army to fight. Cowardice could be contagious and would simply not be tolerated.

    News reports of Patton's slapping incidents spread and although most on the home front were dismissive of them and remained supportive of Patton, Eisenhower felt compelled to reprimand him in some way. But contrary to popular impression, Eisenhower never seriously considered removing Patton from duty: "If this thing ever gets out, they'll be howling for Patton's scalp, and that will be the end of Georgie's service in this war. I simply cannot let that happen. Patton is indispensable to the war effort - one of the guarantors of our victory."

    The "cartoon" from the 1970 film "Patton"

    Try searching the web for the editorial cartoon shown in the 1970 film and you'll be frustrated and come up empty.

    The screen grab above makes it obvious that it was merely a studio prop made for the film. Among the clues: the generic Daily Chronicle newspaper, no signature nor copyright on the cartoon, the fact that the cartoon is rather amateurishly drawn (certainly not akin to Bill Mauldin or Dr Seuss), and the surrounding articles lack any datelines, bylines or common newspaper styling. Plus, the cartoon's message is, quite frankly, rather lame; the swastika on the boot adding nothing but confusion to an already weak message.

    If any US newspapers had run any such cartoons depicting Patton's actions in Sicily, you'd think they could be found online.

    Patton related dates...

    Related WWII Store items...

  • Russian Front - North: Day 695 of 872 of the Siege of Leningrad.
  • Russian Front - North: Day 456 of 658 of the Siege of the Kholm Pocket.
  • Russian Front - Center: Day 30 of 50 of the Battle of Kursk, Russia. Soviets launch a new attack toward Poltava.
  • Russian Front - Center: Day 23 of 38 of the Battle of Orel, Russia.
  • Russian Front - South: Day 12 of 23 of the Battle of Belgorod, Russia.
  • Russian Front - South: Day 22 of 48 of the USSR's Lvov-Sandomierz Offensive. The Soviets cross the Vorskla River, outflanking German Army Group South.
  • MTO - Italy: Day 26 of 40 of the Battle of Sicily. RAF and US Air Forces provide air support. The Italian troops begin evacuating Sicily. The US continues heading east along the north coast.
  • CBI - China: Day 2,219 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • The USS FINBACK sinks a Japanese cargo ship in the South China Sea.
  • PTO - Alaska: Day 423 of 435 of the Battle of Kiska, Aleutian Islands. US 11th Air Force attacks North Head and South Head on Kiska Island.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 104 of 148 of the 2nd Battle of Lae-Salamaua. US 5th and 13th Air Forces provide air support.
  • PTO - Solomon Islands: Day 45 of 67 of the Battle of New Georgia. US 5th and 13th Air Forces provide air support. US Marine Corps tanks join the US offensive.

1944 — , August 3

  • ETO - UK: Day 52 of 86 of the V-1 "Buzz Bomb" offensive on Britain.
  • ETO - France: Day 10 of 29 of the Breakout Battle of Normandy. The US main body continues driving eastward. Allied Air Forces provide air support.
  • ETO - France: Day 59 of 62 of the Battle of Caen. Canadian troops continue attacking south of Caen.
  • ETO - France: Day 3 of 284 of the Battle of Brittany. Hitler orders a counter-attack east of Avranches in an effort to regain the coast.
  • Russian Front - Finland: Day 9 of 19 of the Battle of Ilomantsi, North Karelia.
  • Russian Front - Finland: Day 44 of 50 of the Battle of Karelia. Soviet troops continue their offensive against the Finns in eastern Karelia between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega in northern Russia.
  • Russian Front - North: Day 184 of 191 of the Battle of the Narva Isthmus, Estonia. Day 10 of 19 of the Battle of Tannenberg Line, Estonia. The Germans continue holding the Sinimaed Hills west of Narva.
  • Russian Front - Center: Day 7 of 32 of the Battle of Kaunas, Lithuania.
  • Russian Front - Center: Soviets troops continue pouring across the Vistula River into Poland, focusing on taking Warsaw.
  • MTO - Italy: Allied troops continue pressing the German line holding the Po Valley. Allied Air Forces provide air support.
  • CBI - Burma: Day 152 of 166 of the UK's Operation THURSDAY. US 10th Air Force provides air support.
  • CBI - Burma: Day 147 of 147 of the Battle of Myitkyina. US and Chinese troops capture Myitkyina after a two-month siege.
  • CBI - Burma: Day 125 of 302 of the Chinese Salween Offensive. US 14th Air Force provides air support.
  • CBI - China: Day 2,585 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 109 of 259 of Japan's Operation ICHI-GO.
    • Day 43 of 48 of the Battle of Hengyang. US 14th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO: The USS COD sinks a Japanese merchant ship.
  • PTO - Caroline Islands: US planes hits targets in the Truk Atoll.
  • PTO - Dutch New Guinea: Day 33 of 61 of the Battle of Noemfoor. Although the island has been declared secured, bitter fighting from Japanese continues.
  • PTO - Mariana Islands: Day 14 of 21 of the 2nd Battle of Guam. US 7th Air Force provides air support. Although this battle is declared as completed, it'll be a while before it's really over.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 69 of 83 of the Battle of Biak. There are still 3,000 Japanese soldiers on the island who won't give up.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 233 of 597 of the Battle of New Britain. US 13th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 104 of 481 of the Battle of Western New Guinea. 5th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 51 of 80 of the Battle of Lone Tree Hill.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 25 of 47 of the Battle of Driniumor River, a failed Japanese offense on US troops near Aitape.
  • PTO - Solomon Islands: Day 277 of 295 of the Battle of the Bougainville Islands. US 13th Air Force provides air support.

1945 — , August 3

  • CBI - China: Day 2,950 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • US 14th Air Force attacks various railroad targets in eastern China.
  • CBI - Dutch East Indies: The US destroyers USS CONNER and USS CHARRETTE stop and board the Japanese hospital ship TACHIBANA MARU in the Banda Sea. They find mortar shells hidden in boxes marked medical supplies, so the US Marines take control of the ship.
  • CBI - Malaya: The USS BLENNY sinks two small Japanese craft in the South China Sea. The USS BUGARA sinks 2 more in the Gulf of Siam and the USS RAY sinks 3 more small Japanese vessels in the Gulf of Thailand.
  • PTO: The US Navy announces that by taking Guam, the complete blockade of the Japanese homeland has now been achieved.
  • PTO - Borneo: Day 55 of 67 of the Battle of North Borneo. US 5th and 13th Air Forces provide air support.
  • PTO - Japan: Six Japanese vessels hit naval mines laid by US airplanes in home waters, sinking three of them.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 585 of 597 of the Battle of New Britain. US 10th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 469 of 481 of the Battle of Western New Guinea. US 10th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO - Philippines: Day 287 of 299 of the 2nd Battle of the Philippines, aka the Liberation of the Philippines or the Philippines Campaign.
  • PTO - Philippines: Day 232 of 244 of the Battle of Luzon. The battle is said to over but hold-outs will continue fighting until the end of the war.
  • PTO - Philippines: Day 147 of 159 of the Battle of Mindanao Island. The battle is said to over but hold-outs will continue fighting until the end of the war.

Day-By-Day listings for August 3 were last modified on Sunday, January 31, 2016
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