CBI - China: Day 13 of 154 of the Japanese Invasion of Manchuria.
1936 — , September 30
Spain: Day 76 of 985 of the Spanish Civil War.
1937 — , September 30
Spain: Day 441 of 985 of the Spanish Civil War.
CBI - China: Day 86 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 49 of 106 of the 2nd Battle of Shanghai.
Day 30 of 70 of the Battle of Taiyuan.
1938 — , September 30
Germany: The Munich Agreement is signed by the four leaders of the UK, France, Italy and Germany, allowing Germany to annex the Sudetenland portion of Czechoslovakia. The Czech government feels betrayed, their military alliance with France and Britain having meant nothing. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain returns home with the signed agreement that promises "peace for our time."
PM Neville Chamberlain arriving at Munich, 29 Sep 38
Neville Chamberlain showing the Anglo-German Declaration to a crowd at Heston Aerodrome upon his return, 30 Sep 38
The phrase "peace for our time" (often misquoted as "peace in our time") in Chamberlain's speech concerning the Munich Agreement and the Anglo-German Declaration echos Benjamin Disraeli, who upon returning from the Congress of Berlin in 1878 stated "I have returned from Germany with peace for our time."
Yet in this case Chamberlain's words will be primarily remembered for its ironic value, as the German occupation of the Sudetenland began on the following day. Less than a year after the agreement, following continued aggression from Germany and its invasion of Poland, Europe was plunged into World War II.
Spain: Day 806 of 985 of the Spanish Civil War.
CBI - China: Day 451 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 112 of 139 of the Battle of Wuhan.
1939 — , September 30
Atlantic: German Battleship GRAF SPEE sinks the British steamship CLEMENT off Pernambuco, Brazil.
Poland: Day 30 of 36 of Germany's Invasion of Poland.
Poland: Day 14 of 20 of the USSR's Invasion of Poland.
CBI - China: Day 816 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 18 of 26 of the 1st Battle of Changsha.
1940 — , September 30
ETO - UK: Day 25 of 258 of the Blitz. With the Luftwaffe having lost 23 more planes compared to the RAF's 16, they decide night raids would be better, so this becomes their last daytime raid.
ETO - UK: Day 83 of 114 of the Battle of Britain.
East Africa: Day 113 of 537 of Italy's East African campaign in the lands south of Egypt.
CBI - China: Day 1,182 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 321 of 381 of the Battle of South Guangxi.
Day 42 of 42 of the Hundred Regiments Offensive.
1941 — , September 30
ETO - UK: Newcastle, England, bombed, but is only the second serious raid on Britain in a month with September's casualties listed as 217 killed.
Russian Front - Finland: Day 101 of 164 of the Battle of Hanko. The Soviets will be forced off their leased naval base.
Russian Front - Finland: Day 27 of 28 of Finland's reconquest of East Karelia in southern Finland. The Soviets continue withdrawing from Finland back to Leningrad.
Russian Front - Finland: Day 94 of 142 of Operation SILVER FOX, a joint German-Finnish campaign to capture the Russian port of Murmansk in the Arctic. The German troops continue withdrawing back into northern Finland.
Russian Front - Finland: Day 92 of 140 of Operation ARCTIC FOX, a joint German-Finnish campaign against Soviet Northern Front defenses at Salla, Finland.
Russian Front: Day 101 of 167 of Germany's Operation BARBAROSSA, the overall invasion of the USSR.
Russian Front - North: Day 23 of 872 of the Siege of Leningrad.
Russian Front - Center: Panzer Group 2 opens its offensive against Moscow 2 days ahead of the rest of Army Group Centre and advances toward Orel.
Russian Front - South: Day 54 of 70 of the Siege of Odessa, Ukraine.
Russian Front - South: Day 5 of 12 of the Battle of the Sea of Azov (north of Black Sea).
MTO - Libya: Day 174 of 256 of the Siege of Tobruk.
East Africa: Day 478 of 537 of Italy's East African campaign in the lands south of Egypt.
CBI - China: Day 1,547 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 25 of 33 of the 2nd Battle of Changsha.
1942 — , September 30
MTO: Known as the Star of Africa, top-scoring Luftwaffe Ace Hans-Joachim Marseille, credited for destroying 158 RAF planes, is killed due to a mechanical error with his plane.
Burial of famed Luftwaffe Ace Hans-Joachim Marseille
Marseille was killed in a flying accident when he was forced to abandon his fighter due to engine failure. After exiting the smoke-filled cockpit, Marseille's chest struck the vertical stabilizer of his aircraft, either killing him instantly or incapacitating him so that he was unable to open his parachute.
He wasn't at all like Nazi fighter pilot stereotype. One of his commanders had this to say about Hans-Joachim Marseille, many years later:
"His hair was too long and he brought with him a list of disciplinary punishments as long as your arm. Of the 7 'kills' he had claimed fighting along the English Channel, 4 had not been confirmed - a large percentage. On top of it all, he was a Berliner. In trying to create an image, he wasn't averse from talking about the many girls he had been to bed with, among them a famous actress. He was tempestuous, temperamental and unruly. Thirty years later, he would have been called a playboy."
Marseille was in love with the Paris nightlife, so much so that he sometimes was unable to fly the following morning. His skills as a pilot were undeniable, however, and he would develop them fully after being transferred to North Africa, where there wasn't a whole lot of extracurricular entertainment to distract him.
Marseille's impact on enemy fighter pilots and their morale is unclear. Fanciful stories abound of how opposing pilots knew of one another and hoped to duel with each other in the skies. This was more than likely not the case.
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The Star of Africa: The Story of Hans Marseille, the Rogue Luftwaffe Ace Who Dominated the WWII Skies
Russian Front - North: Day 388 of 872 of the Siege of Leningrad.
Russian Front - North: Day 149 of 658 of the Siege of the Kholm Pocket, USSR lays siege to the Kholm Pocket but the Germans hold out for a about a year and a half.
Russian Front - Center: Day 63 of 64 of the 1st Battle of Rzhev-Sychevka, Russia. Though it ends in a stalemate, it did keep German troops from going to Stalingrad.
Russian Front - South: Day 95 of 150 of Germany's CASE BLUE, the failed offensive to take the Caucasus oil fields.
Russian Front - South: Day 39 of 165 of the Battle of Stalingrad, the bloodiest battle in human history.
East Africa: Day 149 of 186 of the Battle of Madagascar.
CBI - China: Day 1,912 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
PTO - Alaska: Day 116 of 435 of the Battle of Kiska, Aleutian Islands. The US and Canada will defeat the Japanese invaders.
PTO - Malaya: Day 224 of 357 of the Battle of Timor Island, a long guerrilla war ending in Japanese victory.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 72 of 119 of the Battle of the Kokoda Track. The Australians continue pushing back the Japanese troops. This will become an Allied victory.
PTO - Solomon Islands: Day 55 of 187 of the Battle of Guadalcanal.
1943 — , September 30
ETO: On the eve of the Jewish New Year, the Gestapo and Danish Nazis begin rounding up all Danish Jews. With the help of a Danish fisherman, many were ferried to neutral Sweden.
Russian Front - North: Day 753 of 872 of the Siege of Leningrad.
Russian Front - North: Day 514 of 658 of the Siege of the Kholm Pocket, USSR lays siege to the Kholm Pocket but the Germans hold out for a about a year and a half.
Russian Front - North: Day 5 of 15 of the USSR Kremenchug Offensive into Estonia.
Russian Front - Center: Day 55 of 57 of the 2nd Battle of Smolensk, Russia. A Soviet victory as the Axis will be completely cleared from the Moscow region.
Russian Front - Center: Day 45 of 48 of the Battle of Bryansk, Russia. German troops continue evacuating the Bryansk area.
Russian Front - South: Day 38 of 122 of the Battle of the Lower Dnieper River, USSR. The Russians make Dnieper River crossings on a 300-mile front.
MTO - Italy: US 3rd ID captures Avellino. The RAF, US 9th and 12th Air Forces provide the air cover for the Allied ground troops.
CBI - China: Day 2,277 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 12 of 219 of the Battle of Shaggy Ridge. This will become an Allied victory.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 9 of 162 of the Battle of the Huon Peninsula. This will result in an Allied victory.
PTO - Solomon Islands: Day 47 of 56 of the Battle of Vella Lavella. The Allies will win this one.
1944 — , September 30
ETO - France: Day 61 of 284 of the Battle of Brittany.
ETO - Belgium: Day 29 of 62 of the liberation of Belgium.
ETO - France: Day 16 of 236 of the Siege of Dunkirk. German garrison at Calais surrenders to Canadian troops, thus the cross-channel guns that had been pounding Dover for the last three years are finally silenced.
ETO - Germany: Day 12 of 145 of the Battle of Hürtgen Forest.
ETO: US 8th Air Force B-17s and B-24s hit targets in western Germany.
Russian Front - Finland: Day 16 of 223 of the Lapland War. Finland and Russia have joined forces to kick the Germans out of Finland's most northern province.
Russian Front - North: Day 17 of 41 of the Battle of Riga, Latvia.
Russian Front - Center: Day 17 of 72 of the Battle into East Prussia and northern Poland.
Russian Front - South: Day 17 of 72 of the Battle of Belgrade, Yugoslavia.
MTO - Italy: US 12th Air Force B-25s bomb in the Po Valley at Piacenza, Voghera, Sesto Calende, Lonate Pozzolo, Galliate, Cittadella, Borgoforte, and Tortona. B-26s hit targets at Cremona, Padua, Turbigo, and San Nazzaro.
CBI - Burma: Day 183 of 302 of the Chinese Salween Offensive in Burma.
CBI - China: Day 2,643 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 167 of 259 of Japan's Operation ICHI-GO.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 291 of 597 of the Battle of New Britain.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 162 of 481 of the Battle of Western New Guinea.
PTO - Palau Islands: Day 16 of 74 of the Battle of Peleliu (Operation STALEMATE II).
PTO - Palau Islands: Day 14 of 36 of the Battle of Angaur.
1945 — , September 30
USA: Day Savings Time, imposed nationwide on 10 Feb 42, is finally rescinded. States and cities across America are free to turn back their clocks one hour and to decide whether or not to seasonally adopt DST in the future.
[+] show related dates
10 Feb 42: Congress imposes Daylight Saving Time to conserve fuel
30 Sep 45: Mandatory Daylight Saving Time is finally rescinded