CBI - China: Day 69 of 154 of the Japanese Invasion of Manchuria.
1936 — , November 25
Germany: To form alliances between themselves under the guise of a united front against international communism, the Anti-Comintern Pact is signed between Germany, Japan, Spain, Croatia, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, Denmark, Finland, Manchukuo, and Japan's puppet government in Nanking.
25 Nov 36: Japanese signatory, Ambassador Viscount Kintomo Mushakoji (left), looks on as Hitler's foreign affairs adviser Joachim von Ribbentrop (right) signs the Anti-Comintern Pact
In August 1939, Germany broke the terms of the Anti-Comintern Pact when the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was signed between the Soviet Union and Germany. However, by 1940, Hitler began to plan for a potential invasion (planned to start in 1941) of the Soviet Union.
The German foreign minister, Joachim von Ribbentrop, was sent to negotiate a new treaty with Japan. On September 25, 1940, Ribbentrop sent a telegram to Vyacheslav Molotov, the Soviet foreign minister, informing him that Germany, Italy and Japan were about to sign a military alliance. Ribbentrop tried to reassure Molotov by claiming that this alliance was to be directed toward the United States and not the Soviet Union:
"Its exclusive purpose is to bring the elements pressing for America's entry into the war to their senses by conclusively demonstrating to them if they enter the present struggle they will automatically have to deal with the three great powers as adversaries."
This was welcomed by the Soviet Union, which went as far as to propose two months later to join Axis. The preliminary condition, unacceptable for Germany, was to greatly extend Soviet sphere of influence to include Bulgaria, the Bosphorus, the Dardanelles, and further south toward the Persian Gulf.
25 Nov 36: Anti-Comintern Pact signed by 10 nations against communism
06 Nov 37: Italy signs the Anti-Comintern Pact, joining Germany and Japan
27 Sep 40: Germany, Italy and Japan sign Tripartite (Axis) Pact
The Clash: US - Japanese Relations Throughout History
Spain: Day 132 of 985 of the Spanish Civil War.
1937 — , November 25
Spain: Day 497 of 985 of the Spanish Civil War.
CBI - China: Day 142 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 105 of 106 of the 2nd Battle of Shanghai. The Japanese troops at Hangshow Bay are heading toward Shanghai.
1938 — , November 25
Spain: Day 862 of 985 of the Spanish Civil War.
CBI - China: Day 507 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 45 of 81 of Japan's Operation GUANGDONG.
1939 — , November 25
CBI - China: Day 872 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 11 of 381 of the Battle of South Guangxi.
1940 — , November 25
USA: The B-26 Marauder twin-engine medium bomber makes its first flight.
The Martin B-26 Marauder
The B-26 Marauder was used mostly in Europe but also saw action in the Mediterranean and the Pacific.
After entering service with the US Army, the aircraft received the reputation of a "Widowmaker" due to the early models' high rate of accidents during takeoff and landings. The Marauder had to be flown at exact airspeeds, particularly on final runway approach and when one engine was out. The 150 mph (241 km/h) speed on short final runway approach was intimidating to pilots who were used to much slower speeds, and whenever they slowed down below what the manual stated, the aircraft would stall and crash
The B-26 became a safer aircraft once crews were re-trained, and after aerodynamics modifications (an increase of wingspan and wing angle-of-incidence to give better takeoff performance, and a larger vertical stabilizer and rudder). After aerodynamic and design changes, the aircraft distinguished itself as "the chief bombardment weapon on the Western Front" according to a United States Army Air Forces dispatch from 1946. The Marauder ended World War II with the lowest loss rate of any USAAF bomber.
The first B-26 Marauder mission flown was by the 22nd Bomb Group on 05 Apr 42 from Garbutt Field, Australia, to strike a Japanese base at Rabaul, New Britain.
The last bombing mission by a B-26 Marauder Group was flown on 01 May 45 by the 17th Bomb Group 1st Tactical Air Force, bombing gun positions on the Isle d'Oleron, France.
Over 5,000 B-26 Marauders were produced between February 1941 and March 1945; 522 of these were flown by the Royal Air Force and the South African Air Force.
Closeup view of a B-26C Marauder in flight
Martin B-26B-20-MA Marauder 41-31765 "Fightin' Cock" [ER-X] of the 450th BS, 322nd BG, 9th AF. Aircraft was later lost to a landing accident at RAF Great Dunmow on 12 Aug 44.
B-26 Marauder featured in a USAAF recruiting poster
US Bomber Production in WWII
*Part of 9,831 Douglas bombers of similar design built
East Africa: Day 169 of 537 of Italy's East African campaign in the lands south of Egypt.
CBI - China: Day 1,238 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 376 of 381 of the Battle of South Guangxi.
Day 1 of 6 of the Battle of Han River.
CBI - Thailand: Day 56 of 221 of the Franco-Thai War (Vichy France vs Thailand).
1941 — , November 25
MTO: Nearly 860 sailors are killed when the British battleship HMS BARHAM sinks off the coast of Crete after being torpedoed by Nazi German U-boat U-331.
HMS BARHAM four minutes after being torpedoed by U-331
HMS BARHAM was hit by three torpedoes from German submarine U-311 at the close range of 750 yards. Her 15-inch magazine exploded, causing her to sink quickly with the loss of 861 men.
Because U-331 had to dive to evade the other Royal Navy ships nearby, her captain was unable to confirm his kill and when the U-boat finally resurfaced he assumed that the BARHAM had steamed out of sight, thus the German High Command was unaware of the ship having been destroyed. The British Admiralty realized that German intelligence had not yet learned the sinking of the ship and seized upon the opportunity to generate false intelligence. The announcement of the loss would not be made by the Admiralty until 27 Jan 42.
Russian Front - Finland: Day 157 of 164 of the Battle of Hanko. The Soviets will be forced off their leased naval base.
Russian Front: Day 157 of 167 of Germany's Operation BARBAROSSA.
Russian Front - North: Day 79 of 872 of the Siege of Leningrad.
Russian Front - Center: Day 55 of 98 of the Battle of Moscow. German ground troops actually reach Moscow but cannot sustain their attack.