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Selected: June 28
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1914 — , June 28

  • Austria: Archduke Ferdinand, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, is gunned down in Sarajevo by a group of six assassins, the event that sparks World War One.
    Spotlight...

    The Archduke and his wife, minutes before assassination

    The assassination of the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand came as tensions between European powers were reaching boiling point over their empires, military superiority and the struggle for home rule by smaller nations in the Balkans.

    In Bosnia, 19-year-old Gavrilo Princip was one of many angry young men wanting to free his country from the control of Austria-Hungary. Bosnia had been annexed from Serbia six years before.

    Archduke Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, was visiting Sarajevo to inspect imperial forces with his wife Sophie.

    His parade through the town coincided with the anniversary of the 1389 Battle of Kosovo, which had come to be a symbol of Serbian patriotism, and the timing was seen as a direct insult to Serbians.

    A group of six assassins, including Princip, had planned the assassination as a symbol of resistance to Austro-Hungarian role and gathered along the parade route.

    Several members of the group failed to take their chances to kill the Archduke as he traveled through crowds with little security in an open car and a bomb thrown by Nedeljko Cabrinovie bounced off the vehicle.

    The Archduke carried on to a scheduled reception at the Town Hall, where he spoke of the failed assassination, before leaving again in a motorcade (as seen in the photo above).

    When the driver of Archduke Ferdinand's car took a fateful wrong turn, he was ordered to reverse and stopped directly in front of Princip who fired two shots, hitting the Archduke in the jugular and his wife Sophie in the abdomen, killing them both.

    The double murder shocked Europe and led to anti-Serbian riots in Sarajevo. Days later, Austria-Hungary issued Serbia with an ultimatum, blaming the Government for the assassination and demanding it stopped all anti-Austro-Hungarian propaganda, accept its involvement suppressing rebels and allow it to take over trials of everyone involved in the assassination.

    When the Serbian Government refused two of the demands, Vienna considered the ultimatum rejected.

    Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28 and the tangle of national alliances pulled the rest of Europe into the conflict within days and the First World War began.

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1919 — , June 28

  • France: The Treaty of Versailles is signed.

1937 — , June 28

  • Spain: Day 347 of 985 of the Spanish Civil War.

1938 — , June 28

  • Spain: Day 712 of 985 of the Spanish Civil War.
  • CBI - China: Day 357 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 18 of 139 of the Battle of Wuhan.

1939 — , June 28

  • UK: The British Women's Auxiliary Air Force (WAAF), the female auxiliary of the Royal Air Force, is formed. At its peak strength in 1943, WAAF numbers will exceed 180,000, with over 2,000 women enlisting per week.
    Spotlight...

    Women of the Women's Auxiliary Air Force

    WAAFs did not serve on aircrews, nor did they participate in active combat, though they were exposed to the same dangers as any on the "home front" working at military installations.

    They were active in parachute packing and the manning of barrage balloons, in addition to performing meteorology, radar, transport and communications duties, including wireless telephonic and telegraphic operation.

    They worked with codes and ciphers, analyzed reconnaissance photographs and performed intelligence operations.

    WAAFs were a vital presence in the control of aircraft, both the radar stations and iconically as plotters in the operation rooms, most notably during the Battle of Britain.

    Dates related to Women pilots in WWII...

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  • CBI - China: Day 722 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 15 of 68 of the Battle of Tianjin.
  • CBI - Mongolia: Day 49 of 129 of the Battle of Khalkhin Gol, a border dispute between the Soviet Union and Japan.

1940 — , June 28

  • USA: The Alien Registration Act (the Smith Act) is passed by the US Congress, requiring aliens to register and be fingerprinted. The act also makes it illegal to advocate the overthrow of the US government.
  • Atlantic: German sub U-30 sinks the British ship LLANARTH 250 miles west of Brest, France.
  • Atlantic: British trawler CASTLETON becomes missing in the Orkney Islands in northern Scotland, which many believe was sunk by U-102 which also did not return from their patrol.
  • ETO - UK: General Charles de Gaulle is officially recognized by Britain as the "Leader of all Free Frenchmen, wherever they may be."
  • ETO - UK: The British Channel Islands are partially evacuated after being demilitarized to minimize casualties to be caused by imminent German attacks. On this same day, the Luftwaffe bombs Guernsey and Jersey, killing 33 and injuring 40.
  • Eastern Front: The Soviet Union occupies Bessarabia and the northern part of Bukovina, ceded yesterday by Romania.
  • MTO - Italy: The Pope offers to mediate between Britain, Germany and Italy.
  • MTO - Libya: The RAF bombs Tobruk. Italian Governor-General of Libya, Marshal Italo Balbo, on returning from a reconnaissance flight, is shot down and killed by jumpy Italian anti-aircraft crews. Given Balbo's opposition to Mussolini's alliance with Germany, some believe this friendly fire incident was actually an assassination.
  • East Africa: Day 19 of 537 of Italy's East African campaign in the lands south of Egypt.
  • CBI - China: Day 1,088 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 227 of 381 of the Battle of South Guangxi.

1941 — , June 28

  • USA: Vannevar Bush is named as director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), which had just been created by President Roosevelt.
  • Russian Front - Finland: Day 7 of 164 of the Battle of Hanko.
  • Russian Front: Day 7 of 167 of Germany's Operation BARBAROSSA, the invasion of the USSR.
  • Russian Front - Center: Day 7 of 12 of the Battle of Minsk. German Army Group Centre is poised to capture Minsk and trap 27 Soviet divisions.
  • Russian Front - Center: Day 7 of 8 of the Battle of Brest, Russia.
  • Russian Front - South: Day 6 of 8 of the Battle of Brody, Poland.
  • Romania: Romanian governmental troops, allies of Nazi Germany, launch one of the most violent pogroms (organized massacre of a particular ethnic group) in Jewish history in the city of Iaşi (Jassy), Romania, resulting in the murder of at least 13,266 Jews.
  • Albania: Albania declares war on the Soviet Union.
  • MTO - Libya: Day 80 of 256 of the Siege of Tobruk.
  • Middle East: Day 21 of 37 of the Battle for Syria and Lebanon.
  • East Africa: Day 384 of 537 of Italy's East African campaign in the lands south of Egypt.
  • CBI - China: Day 1,453 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.

1942 — , June 28

  • Atlantic: Day 166 of 169 of Germany's Second "Happy Time," during which U-boats sink 609 Allied ships with little risk.
    • Day 2 of 14 of Germany's Hunt for Allied Convoy PQ-17. During this hunt, U-boats and the Luftwaffe will sink 24 merchant ships. Today, 3 ships from this convoy are forced to abort.
  • Russian Front - North: Day 294 of 872 of the Siege of Leningrad.
  • Russian Front - North: Day 55 of 658 of the Siege of the Kholm Pocket.
  • Russian Front - Center: Day 31 of 31 of Operation KREMLIN, a German diversion to trick the Soviets into thinking Moscow is their main objective instead of Stalingrad and the Caucasus.
  • Russian Front - South: Day 242 of 248 of the Siege of Sevastopol, Crimean Peninsula. The Germans devastate the Soviet defenses on the Sapun Ridge, the last defense outside Sevastopol.
  • Russian Front - South: Day 1 of 27 of the Battle of Voronezh, Russia. In order for CASE BLUE to succeed, the Germans need to take this important city on the Don River.
  • Russian Front - South: Day 1 of 150 of Germany's CASE BLUE, the failed offensive to take the Caucasus oil fields.
  • MTO - Egypt: German advance units capture Fuka and Mersa Matruh.
  • MTO - Libya: US HALPRO B-24s bomb the harbor at Tobruk and German tanks and vehicles along the Sollum-Matruh road.
  • East Africa: Day 55 of 186 of the Battle of Madagascar.
  • CBI - China: Day 1,818 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 45 of 124 of Japan's Zhejiang-Jiangxi Campaign, launched to punish anyone suspected of aiding the Doolittle raiders in China. Roughly 250,000 Chinese will be killed.
  • PTO - Alaska: Day 22 of 435 of the Battle of Kiska, Aleutian Islands. US reconnaissance parties land on Adak Island from submarines.
  • PTO - Malaya: Day 130 of 357 of the Battle of Timor Island.

1943 — , June 28

  • ETO - France: US 8th Air Force B-17s bomb the submarine pens at Saint-Nazaire and the Beaumont-le-Roger Airfield.
  • ETO - Germany: The RAF bombs Cologne, during which the Cologne Cathedral is badly damaged. In all, about 4,000 are killed and another 1,500 are wounded. An RAF reconnaissance plane conclusively identifies German long-range V-2 rocket launch sites at Peenemünde.
  • Russian Front - North: Day 659 of 872 of the Siege of Leningrad.
  • Russian Front - North: Day 420 of 658 of the Siege of the Kholm Pocket.
  • MTO - Italy: US 12th Air Force: RAF Wellingtons night bomb at Messina and Villa San Giovanni. During the day, US bombers hit Leghorn, the airfields in Sicily and targets in Sardinia.
  • CBI - China: Day 2,183 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
  • PTO: Day 33 of 47 adrift in a raft after the B-24 GREEN HORNET went down 850 miles west of Hawaii, Frank McNamara dies, reducing the number of survivors to two. One is Olympic star Louis Zamperini.
  • PTO - Alaska: Day 387 of 435 of the Battle of Kiska, Aleutian Islands. US 11th Air Force bombs Gertrude Cove on Little Kiska Island and the southern Main Camp area on Kiska.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 68 of 148 of the 2nd Battle of Lae-Salamaua. US 5th and 13th Air Forces provide air support.
  • PTO - Solomon Islands: Day 9 of 67 of the Battle of New Georgia. US 13th Air Force provides air support.

1944 — , June 28

  • ETO - UK: Day 16 of 86 of the V-1 "Buzz Bomb" offensive on Britain.
  • ETO - France: Day 23 of 49 of Operation OVERLORD, the Allied invasion of Normandy, France, known forever simply as D-Day. D-Day+22: Allied Air Forces provide air support.
  • ETO - France: Day 23 of 62 of the Battle of Caen. The British 2nd Army's Operation grinds to a halt due to fierce German resistance.
  • ETO - France: Day 23 of 25 of the Battle of Cherbourg. The battle has been prematurely declared over, but it will take a couple more days to mop it up.
  • ETO - France: French resistance members kill the Minister of Information and local Milice leader Phillipe Henriot. The Milice leader in Lyon, Paul Touvier, is ordered to conduct reprisal killings.
  • Russian Front - Finland: Day 4 of 15 of the Battle of Tali-Ihantala. This becomes the largest battle in Scandinavian history.
  • Russian Front - Finland: Day 8 of 50 of the Battle of Karelia. Soviet troops continue their offensive against the Finns in eastern Karelia between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega in northern Russia.
  • Russian Front - North: Day 148 of 191 of the Battle of the Narva Isthmus, Estonia. Both German and Soviet troops remain locked in their defensive positions.
  • Russian Front - Center: Day 6 of 6 of the Battle of Orsha, Belarus. The Soviets capture Orsha.
  • Russian Front - Center: Day 6 of 6 of the Battle of Mogilev, Belarus. The Soviets take Mogilev and cross the Berezina river, surrounding most of the German 9th Army.
  • Russian Front - Center: Day 5 of 6 of the Battle of Bobruysk, Belarus. The Soviets liberate Bobruysk and capture a massive number of Germans.
  • MTO: US 15th Air Force bomb in Romania and Bulgaria.
  • MTO - Italy: Day 13 of 34 of the Battle of Ancona (north of Rome). Allied Air Forces provide air support.
  • CBI - Burma: Day 116 of 166 of the UK's Operation THURSDAY.
  • CBI - Burma: Day 111 of 147 of the Battle of Myitkyina. US 10th Air Force provides air support.
  • CBI - Burma: Day 89 of 302 of the Chinese Salween Offensive. US 14th Air Force provides air support.
  • CBI - China: Day 2,549 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 73 of 259 of Japan's Operation ICHI-GO.
    • Day 7 of 48 of the Battle of Hengyang.
  • CBI - India: Day 113 of 118 of the Battle of Imphal-Kohima. The Japanese continue retreating back into Burma.
  • PTO: The USS GAR sinks a Japanese ship in daylight with her deck gun.
  • PTO - Mariana Islands: Day 14 of 25 of the Battle of Saipan. US 7th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 33 of 83 of the Battle of Biak. There are still 3,000 Japanese soldiers on the island who won't give up.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 197 of 597 of the Battle of New Britain. US 13th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 68 of 481 of the Battle of Western New Guinea. 5th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 15 of 80 of the Battle of Lone Tree Hill.
  • PTO - Solomon Islands: Day 241 of 295 of the Battle of the Bougainville Islands. US 13th Air Force provides air support.

1945 — , June 28

  • CBI - China: Day 2,914 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
    • Day 89 of 91 of the Battle of Zhijiang. US 14th Air Force provides air support. Japanese troops continue pulling out of China.
  • PTO - Borneo: Day 19 of 67 of the Battle of North Borneo. US 5th and 13th Air Forces provide air support.
  • PTO - Japan: US 20th Air Force B-29s drop incendiary bombs on Okayama, Sasebo, Moji and Nobeoka.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 549 of 597 of the Battle of New Britain. US 10th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO - New Guinea: Day 433 of 481 of the Battle of Western New Guinea. US 10th Air Force provides air support.
  • PTO - Philippines: Day 251 of 299 of the 2nd Battle of the Philippines, aka the Liberation of the Philippines or the Philippines Campaign.
  • PTO - Philippines: Day 196 of 244 of the Battle of Luzon. The battle is said to over but hold-outs will continue fighting for a couple of more months.
  • PTO - Philippines: Day 111 of 159 of the Battle of Mindanao Island. The battle is said to over but hold-outs will continue fighting for a couple of more months.
  • PTO - Philippines: Day 103 of 135 of the Battle of the Visayas region. The battle is said to over but hold-outs will continue fighting for a couple of more months.

Day-By-Day listings for June 28 were last modified on Tuesday, February 2, 2016
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