Germany: The Center Party, a Catholic political party formed in 1870, dissolves itself.
1937 — , July 5
Spain: Day 354 of 985 of the Spanish Civil War.
1938 — , July 5
Spain: Day 719 of 985 of the Spanish Civil War.
CBI - China: Day 364 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 25 of 139 of the Battle of Wuhan.
1939 — , July 5
PTO - Japan: The Japanese aircraft carrier HIRYU is commissioned, one of the carriers that will be involved in the attack on Pearl Harbor. She will be heavily damaged by air attacks on June 4, 1942, at the Battle of Midway and will sink the following day.
The heavily damaged, burning Japanese aircraft carrier HIRYU, photographed by a plane from the carrier HOSHO shortly after sunrise on June 5, 1942. HIRYU sank a few hours later. Note collapsed flight deck over the forward hangar. (US Navy photo)
Commanded by Captain Tomeo Kaku, the HIRYU was part of the Strike Force in the attack on Pearl Harbor 07 Dec 41. She launched one wave of planes against the island of Oahu: ten Kates targeted the USS ARIZONA and USS CALIFORNIA, eight Kates targeted USS WEST VIRGINIA, USS OKLAHOMA and USS HELENA and six Zeros attacked US air bases at Wheeler Field and Barbers Point. On 19 April 1942 she pursued the US carriers HORNET and ENTERPRISE after they launched the Doolittle Raid, but failed to catch them.
CBI - China: Day 729 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 22 of 68 of the Battle of Tianjin.
CBI - Mongolia: Day 56 of 129 of the Battle of Khalkhin Gol, a border dispute between the Soviet Union and Japan.
1940 — , July 5
USA: President Roosevelt uses the power given by the Export Control Act, passed into law just three days prior, to restrict the export of strategic materials to Japan.
Atlantic: German sub U-34 sinks the British destroyer HMS WHIRLWIND off Land's End, southwestern tip of England, 50 miles southwest of Ireland.
Atlantic: German sub U-99 damages Canadian steamer MAGOG, breaking her into two. The stern section sinks immediately but the remainder of the ship remains afloat largely due to the timber she is carrying.
Atlantic: Operation FISH: A British fleet departs from Greenock, Scotland, carrying $1,750,000,000 (US) worth of gold and securities from the Bank of England to be put into the Bank of Canada's vault in Ottawa.
ETO - Germany: The RAF night bombs at Kiel and Wilhelmshaven.
MTO - Romania: Romania announces that it has joined the Axis Powers.
MTO - Libya: British Royal Navy planes attack the Italian naval base at Tobruk. The destroyer ZEFFIRO is sunk, destroyer EUEO's bow is blown off, troop transport LIGURIA is damaged and then beached to prevent sinking, merchant vessel Manzoni is sunk and merchant vessel SERENITAS is damaged.
West Africa: In retaliation for the British action at Mers-el-Kebir, Vichy French warships based at Dakar capture 3 British merchant ships, while French aircraft stationed in Morocco attack British shipping off Gibraltar.
East Africa: Day 26 of 537 of Italy's East African campaign in the lands south of Egypt.
CBI - China: Day 1,095 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 234 of 381 of the Battle of South Guangxi.
1941 — , July 5
South America: Day 1 of 27 of the Ecuadorian-Peruvian War. An ongoing territorial dispute erupts into a short war between Peru and Ecuador, which will be known as the Guerra del 41 (War of '41).
Peruvian aircraft on a bombing mission against Ecuador during the Guerra del 41
This was the first of three military conflicts that occurred between these two South American nations during the 20th century. Both Ecuador and Peru will declare war against the Axis powers late in 1945 and therefore will technically become allies. What's important to remember, however, is that many small wars within the big war happened during World War II, both between nations and inside them. Usually, one faction would side with one of the major powers to gain support and a military advantage over their foe. Yet in this case, Peru and Ecuador did no such thing.
Dates related to Latin America in WWII...
05 Jul 41: Peru and Ecuador go to war against each other
19 Dec 41: Colombia severs diplomatic relations with Germany and Italy
21 May 42: Mexico declares war against the Axis powers
22 Aug 42: Brazil declares war on Germany and Italy, sends troops
UK: Foreign Secretary Eden categorically rules out the possibility of negotiating with Hitler.
Atlantic: British troopship HMT ANSELM, carrying RAF personnel to Africa, is torpedoed in the Atlantic Ocean. In 1947, RAF Volunteer Reserve Herbert Cecil Pugh will be posthumously awarded a George Cross for tending to the wounded, helping with life rafts and finally asking to be lowered into the flooding hold to be with his comrades who could not escape.
ETO - Germany: The RAF night bombs on Münster and Bielefeld.
Russian Front - Finland: Day 7 of 142 of Operation SILVER FOX, a joint German-Finnish campaign to capture the Russian port of Murmansk in the Arctic.
Russian Front - Finland: Day 5 of 140 of Operation ARCTIC FOX, a joint German-Finnish campaign against Soviet Northern Front defenses at Salla, Finland.
Russian Front - Finland: Day 14 of 164 of the Battle of Hanko.
Russian Front: Day 14 of 167 of Germany's Operation BARBAROSSA, the invasion of the USSR.
Russian Front - Center: German Army Group Centre keeps pressing toward Moscow.
Russian Front - South: Day 4 of 21 of the Battle of Bessarabia, Russia. German and Romanian troops continue their attack at Bessarabia to take the land and city that Romania was forced to cede to the USSR a year ago.
Russian Front - South: In Ukraine, German 6th Army breaks through near Lvov, while 1st Panzer Group drives toward Zhitomir and Berdichev.
Russian Front - South: German and Romanian troops keep advancing toward Vinnitsa and the Black Sea port of Odessa, Ukraine.
MTO - Libya: Day 87 of 256 of the Siege of Tobruk.
Middle East: Day 28 of 37 of the Battle for Syria and Lebanon.
East Africa: Day 391 of 537 of Italy's East African campaign in the lands south of Egypt.
CBI - China: Day 1,460 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
1942 — , July 5
Atlantic: Day 9 of 14 of Germany's Hunt for Allied Convoy PQ-17. During this hunt, U-boats and the Luftwaffe will sink 24 merchant ships. As the convoy scatters, 6 ships are sunk by the Luftwaffe and 6 others by the U-boats.
Russian Front - North: Day 301 of 872 of the Siege of Leningrad.
Russian Front - North: Day 62 of 658 of the Siege of the Kholm Pocket.
Russian Front - Center: Day 4 of 22 of Germany's Operation SEYDLITZ, a plan to trap and capture numerous Soviet troops.
Russian Front - South: Day 8 of 27 of the Battle of Voronezh, Russia. 4th Panzer Group reaches the Don River north and south of Voronezh.
Russian Front - South: Day 8 of 150 of Germany's CASE BLUE, the failed offensive to take the Caucasus oil fields.
MTO - Egypt: Day 5 of 27 of the 1st Battle of El Alamein. Axis troops start laying minefields in front of their positions.
MTO - Libya: US B-24s night bomb the harbor at Benghazi.
East Africa: Day 62 of 186 of the Battle of Madagascar.
CBI - China: Day 1,825 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 52 of 124 of Japan's Zhejiang-Jiangxi Campaign, launched to punish anyone suspected of aiding the Doolittle raiders in China. Roughly 250,000 Chinese will be killed.
PTO: The USS FINBACK attacks two Japanese destroyers in the central Pacific.
PTO - Alaska: Day 29 of 435 of the Battle of Kiska, Aleutian Islands. US submarines attack Japanese destroyers, sinking two and damaging two others.
PTO - Malaya: Day 137 of 357 of the Battle of Timor Island.
PTO - New Guinea: US 5th Air Force bombs targets at Lae and Salamaua.
1943 — , July 5
Atlantic: German sub U-759 sinks the American ship MALTRAN 70 miles west of Port Salut, Haiti.
Russian Front - North: Day 666 of 872 of the Siege of Leningrad.
Russian Front - North: Day 427 of 658 of the Siege of the Kholm Pocket.
Russian Front - Center: Day 1 of 50 of the Battle of Kursk, Russia. Germany relaunches Operation CITADEL, aimed at encircling and destroying Soviet troops in the Orel-Belgorod salient near Kursk. However, the Soviets are ready with some offensives of their own.
MTO - Italy: US 9th and 12th Air Forces bombs several targets in Sicily, Sardinia and Catania.
CBI - China: Day 2,190 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
PTO: The USS SNOOK attacks a Japanese convoy, sinking the cargo ships KOKI MARU and LIVERPOOL MARU and damaging the ATLANTIC MARU.
PTO: The USS POMPANO sinks the Japanese seaplane carrier SAGARA MARU.
PTO: Day 40 of 47 adrift in a raft for the survivors of B-24 GREEN HORNET that crashed 850 miles from Hawaii.
PTO - Alaska: Day 394 of 435 of the Battle of Kiska, Aleutian Islands.
PTO - Dutch East Indies: The Indian National Army holds a military parade in the Japanese-occupied Padang, Sumatra.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 75 of 148 of the 2nd Battle of Lae-Salamaua. US 5th and 13th Air Forces provide air support.
PTO - Solomon Islands: Day 16 of 67 of the Battle of New Georgia. US 5th and 13th Air Forces provide air support. US troops lands at Rice Anchorage on the northern coast of New Georgia while US cruisers and destroyers bombard the Japanese positions at Vila, Kolombangara and Bairoko Harbor. The destroyer USS STRONG is sunk by Japanese shore batteries in Rice Anchorage.
1944 — , July 5
ETO: Francis "Gabby" Gabreski becomes America's leading fighter Ace with his 28th confirmed kill, a record that will not be surpassed in the ETO.
Francis Stanley "Gabby" Gabreski
Gabby's next kill will come seven years later to the day when, flying an F-86A Sabre jet, he shoots down a MiG-15 over the skies of North Korea, which will put him on the path to become a two-war Ace, one of only seven US combat pilots to achieve such status. His two-war credited record will be 34½ enemy aircraft destroyed.
Francis Stanley "Gabby" Gabreski was the top American fighter ace in Europe during WWII, a jet fighter ace in Korea, and a career officer in the US Air Force with more than 26 years service, retiring with the rank of colonel.
Unlike other fighter pilots of WWII, Gabby showed no natural-born ability that would hint at his greatness to come. To the contrary, in 1938 when he took an interest in flying, his instructor advised him forget about it, saying that he simply did not "have the touch to be a pilot."
Angered by Nazi Germany's invasion of Poland in 1939, his Polish ancestry fueled a renewed interest in learning to fly and help set things right in Europe and he enlisted in the US Army Air Corps, volunteering as an aviation cadet. But Gabreski was a mediocre trainee at best, and was forced to pass an elimination check ride during primary to continue training. He passed, but just barely. From that moment forward, Gabby would struggle to learn, improving his skills little by little.
He struggled through basic and advanced flight training, earned his wings and a commission as 2nd Lieutenant in March of 1941 and sailed to Hawaii to his first assignment, which is where he was when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. During that action, Gabreski joined several members of his squadron in flying P-36 fighters in an attempt to intercept the attackers, but the Japanese had withdrawn before they could intercede.
Since Polish squadrons had proved to be capable within the RAF and since he himself was of Polish origin and spoke Polish, he offered to serve as a liaison officer to the Polish squadrons to learn from their experience. His request was approved and he was posted to RAF squadrons in England through February of 1943 when US Fighter Groups arrived.
Gabreski shaking hands with crew chief
Gabby Gabreski related dates...
03 Feb 43: First aerial combat (RAF), too excited to make a kill
24 Aug 43: Flying with the US, gets first credited kill
26 Nov 43: His 4th and 5th kills earn him status of Ace
27 Mar 44: Victory credits total 18 with 6 multi-kill missions
22 May 44: Shoots down 3 Luftwaffe Fw-190s in single mission
27 Jun 44: Ties record with Bob Johnson in "ace race"
05 Jul 44: Becomes America's leading Ace with 28 confirmed kills
20 Jul 44: Flies "just one more" and crash lands in Germany
25 Jul 44: After five days on the run, Gabby is taken POW
Related WWII Store items (Fighter Aces of WWII)...
Douglas Bader Reach for the Sky: The Story of Douglas Bader, Legless Ace of the Battle of Britain
Atlantic: German U-boats begin operations off the Normandy coast, sinking 4 small Allied warships and damaging the British cruiser HMS DRAGON. The HMS GANILLY is sunk by the German sub U-390 off Utah beach.
Atlantic: In the Sea Battle of Pierres Noires in the Iroise Sea in wester France, 2 German patrol boats are sunk.
ETO - UK: Day 23 of 86 of the V-1 "Buzz Bomb" offensive on Britain.
ETO - France: Day 30 of 49 of Operation OVERLORD, the Allied invasion of Normandy, France, known forever simply as D-Day. D-Day+29: Allied Air Forces provide air support.
ETO - France: Day 30 of 62 of the Battle of Caen.
ETO: US 8th Air Force bombs airfields and other targets in the Netherlands, Belgium and France.
Russian Front - Finland: Day 11 of 15 of the Battle of Tali-Ihantala. This becomes the largest battle in Scandinavian history.
Russian Front - Finland: Day 15 of 50 of the Battle of Karelia. Soviet troops continue their offensive against the Finns in eastern Karelia between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega in northern Russia.
Russian Front - North: Day 155 of 191 of the Battle of the Narva Isthmus, Estonia. Both German and Soviet troops remain locked in their defensive positions.
Russian Front - Center: Day 1 of 16 of the Battle of Vilnius, Lithuania.
Russian Front - Center: Day 1 of 27 of the Battle of Siauliai, Lithuania.
Russian Front - Center: Day 1 of 23 of the Battle of Belostock, Poland. This is the Soviets' third and final assault in taking Belostock in central Poland.
MTO - France: US 15th Air Force bomb targets in southern France.
MTO - Italy: Day 20 of 34 of the Battle of Ancona (north of Rome). Allied Air Forces provide air support. The US 5th Army continues clearing Rosignano.
CBI - Burma: Day 123 of 166 of the UK's Operation THURSDAY. US 10th Air Force provides air support.
CBI - Burma: Day 118 of 147 of the Battle of Myitkyina. US 10th Air Force provides air support.
CBI - Burma: Day 96 of 302 of the Chinese Salween Offensive. US 14th Air Force provides air support.
CBI - China: Day 2,556 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
Day 80 of 259 of Japan's Operation ICHI-GO.
Day 14 of 48 of the Battle of Hengyang. US 14th Air Force provides air support.
PTO - Dutch New Guinea: Day 4 of 61 of the Battle of Noemfoor. The Japanese launch an unsuccessful counter-attack.
PTO - Mariana Islands: Day 21 of 25 of the Battle of Saipan. US 7th Air Force provides air support.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 40 of 83 of the Battle of Biak. There are still 3,000 Japanese soldiers on the island who won't give up.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 204 of 597 of the Battle of New Britain. US 13th Air Force provides air support.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 75 of 481 of the Battle of Western New Guinea. 5th Air Force provides air support.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 22 of 80 of the Battle of Lone Tree Hill.
PTO - Solomon Islands: Day 248 of 295 of the Battle of the Bougainville Islands. US 13th Air Force provides air support.
1945 — , July 5
CBI - China: Day 2,921 of 2,987 of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
CBI - Indochina: US 14th Air Force sink several sampans and junks at Haiphong.
PTO - Borneo: Day 26 of 67 of the Battle of North Borneo. US 5th and 13th Air Forces provide air support.
PTO - Dutch East Indies: Day 5 of 21 of the 2nd Battle of Balikpapan.
PTO - Dutch East Indies: The USS PUFFER sinks seven small Japanese vessels with her deck gun and another vessel with torpedoes near Bali.
PTO - Japan: US 20th Air Force attacks airfields in the Tokyo area.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 556 of 597 of the Battle of New Britain. US 10th Air Force provides air support.
PTO - New Guinea: Day 440 of 481 of the Battle of Western New Guinea. US 10th Air Force provides air support.
PTO - Philippines: Day 258 of 299 of the 2nd Battle of the Philippines, aka the Liberation of the Philippines or the Philippines Campaign.
PTO - Philippines: Day 203 of 244 of the Battle of Luzon. The battle is said to over but hold-outs will continue fighting until the end of the war.
PTO - Philippines: Day 118 of 159 of the Battle of Mindanao Island. The battle is said to over but hold-outs will continue fighting until the end of the war.
PTO - Philippines: Day 110 of 135 of the Battle of the Visayas region. The battle is said to over but hold-outs will continue fighting for several weeks.
1946 — , July 5
France: The bikini is introduced in Paris by Louis Reard and mechanical engineer Jacques Heim. Named after the Bikini Atoll, where atomic bomb testing began on July 1st, it was correctly assumed that public reaction would be similarly explosive.
For Louis Reard, small was beautiful.
The idea of a suit "smaller than the world's smallest bathing suit" struck Reard when he saw women rolling up their beachwear to get a better tan.
Two-piece swimsuits without the usual skirt panel and other superfluous material started appearing in the US when the government ordered a 10% reduction in fabric used in women's swimwear in 1943 as wartime rationing.
The bikini was considered scandalous primarily because of the low waistline that revealed the navel. Thus, only local nude dancer Micheline Bernardini could be found willing to model the design.
While midriff baring swimsuits had preceded the bikini, as well as formfitting one-piece bathing suits, it's specifically the two-triangle top and triangular front and back bottom (that sits below the navel) that comprise the original 'bikini' design. Made from just 30 inches of fabric, it was boasted that the minimal design could fit into a matchbox like the one Bernardini is holding in her hand in the above photo.
Poland: The trial ends before the Supreme National Tribunal of Poland against Josef Bühler for crimes against humanity. He had been deputy governor to the Nazi-controlled General Government in Kraków. and will be executed on July 10, 1948.
Day-By-Day listings for July 5 were last modified on Tuesday, February 2, 2016